Sunday, May 31, 2009

I am married!

I am no longer a bachelor. I am married for 4 days now. Yes, the inevitable truth is that my marriage took place at kumaran kundru near annur on 28th may 2009. Marriage reception was held at Lakshmi Mahal, Mettupalayam. In the evening we reached my wife priya's house. We had dinner and then ....

The next day we went to our home at kaniyur. We had plan for going to kadaiyur temple, which is kula theivam for mulukathan kootam. Sivakumar, babu, vani, amma, durika, dhanmathi, me, priya, priya's mother, priya's aunt went there by two cars. We reached kadaiyur by around 1 PM. After prayers we had lunch at kangeyam. Next plan was to goto priya's kula theivam situated near vellodu, perundurai. From kangeyam we went to arachalur situated at 25 kms. From there we took left and drove some 6 kms to reach chinnamman, periamman temple. We make prayers and started for home. On the way some 2 kms before perundurai our car went down. The engine reached the maximum Temperature and let us down in the mid way. The good, old, reliable, Maruti 800 did was broke down. The radiator was boiling and hot steam was coming out. We filled the coolant tank with some water and let the engine cool for some time. The engine gave a roar when i ignited it later. We took her to Priyam motors, a Maruti authorized service station at perundurai. The problem could not be resovled until 8 pm. So we left her at the workshop and took bus to reach mettupalayam.

The next day (saturday) i was offered oil bath and was asked not to sleep the whole day. It was hard to pass time. Shiva&Co showed the latest tamil film 'pasanga'. Pasanka was the latest hit.

The next day (sunday) we went to our home at kaniyur and returned. This is mappillai azhaippu and penn azhaippu.

Today (monday) iam writing this entry. We have plans of going to kunnur/ooty today. Priya is complaining of stomach pain. Let me see that...bye...

Monday, May 25, 2009

Search engine secrets unveiled

One of the major factors of search engine ranking is keywords. Effective selection of keywords is essential for online marketing and ecommerce. While selecting keywords two factors must be considered. One is keyword competition. That is how many web pages are competing for the same keyword. If competition is high you page rank will be low. Another is traffic generated by that keyword. A low competition high traffic keyword is generally preferred.

One of the techniques i have found is is combining both high competition and low competition keyword. This results in at least some traffic to your site, if not huge. For example any high competition keyword combined with Tamil, TamilNadu, Coimbatore will get some traffic to my site. Because these regional keywords are pretty less competitive and drive some traffic through tamilians and people belong to this regions.

Keyword Country offers tools to research keywords.

You can maximize your Google AdSense earnings using their search functionality.

SEO Elite offers windows based software tools for Search Engine Optimization (SEO).

Keyword elite offers keyword research tools for webmasters.

The above to websites are run by Brad Callen the famous internet marketer.

I want the Indian people to be aware of these tools and wish them success in their online efforts. With the success of Google's AdSense Ad publishing most Indian people want to earn money through blogs and websites. People want quick success and huge money without effort and hard work. Google has suspended many Indian AdSense Accounts for fraudulent/false clicks. There is a network of people who helps each other by clicking others Ad. But Google has tools to find false clicks and suspends those accounts.

You can really get organic traffic with these tools, your hard work and patience.

Sunday, May 24, 2009

Motorola Authorized service centers in TamilNadu

Here is a useful list of Motorola India - Mobile phone manufacturers authorized service centers in south Indian cities coimbatore, chennai, erode etc., These centres offers service to Motorola phones sold through dealers and other agents. Warranty claim is also done here.

List of centres:


Redington India P.Ltd
550/136, Hall Mark Towers,
Behind Park Sheraton,
Ttk Road,
Chennai - 600 018
Phone: 044-24356943/24356942

Motostore (Bhawartel)
M78/6, 3rd Avenue,
Opp. K4 Police Station,
Phone: 044 26224365

Sree Ram Telecom,
2/97, Cison Complex,
2nd Floor,
Montienth Road,
Chennai - 600 008
Phone: 09884058805 044 28518273

Redington India P. Ltd,
Wellington Estate,
16A&B, 1st Floor,
53, Opp to Ethiraj College,
Ethiraj Salai,
Egmore, Chennai - 600 105
phone: 044 28207498/99

UCOM Technologies Pvt. Ltd,
G7, Ground Floor,
100, Apollo Dubai Plaza,
Mahalingapuram Main Road,
Nungambakkam Main Road,
Opposite Global Trust Bank (Mahalingapuram),
Nungambakkam, Chennai - 600 034
Phone: 044 42125180


Redington India Pvt. Ltd,
93a, Prasad Chambers,
East Arokiasamy Road,
Near Hotel Annapurna,
RS Puram,
Phone: 0411 4369366


Magnannim Systems,
8, Jayaram complex,
Phone: 09894601617, 04142 329680


UCOM Technologies Pvt. Ltd.,
266, Brough Road,
Opp. CSI Complex,
Opp. Brough Complex,
Erode- 638 001
Phone: 0424 2267114


REX Computers,
11&12, Sri Ganapathy Complex,
Near Narayanamurthy Theatre,
Phone: 09443238355, 04112-27225355


UCOM Technologies Pvt. Ltd.,
55/1&2, Tamil Sangam Road,
205&206, Rajan Complex,
Near Bell Hotel,
Madurai - 625 001
phone: 09345201733, 0452-4378028

Redington India Pvt. Ltd.,
114, VakilNew Street,
2nd Floor,
Near Simmakkal,
Soknathar Koil,
Madurai - 625 001
phone: 0452-4230360


Redington India Pvt. Ltd.,
1/147, Saradha College Road,
Near videocon Service center,
Salem -16
Phone: 0427-2336457/2448457


UCOM Technologies Pvt. Ltd.,
109, Best Complex,
320, Kumaran Road,
Opp. Town Hall,
phone: 09994735385, 0421-4324545


Redington India Pvt. Ltd.,
c70, 10th 'c' Cross,
Opp. Sree krishna sweets,
Thillai Nagar,
Trichy - 620018

UCOM Technologies Pvt. Ltd.,
3/5, First Floor,
Swarna complex,
Tiruchendur Road,
Near signal,
Tirunelveli-627 002
phone: 0462-2575207

Friday, May 22, 2009

Jansons institute of Technology - Coimbatore

Tamilnadu Plus Two Result have been announced and students are rushing to colleges to admissions. This for the information of students aspire to become an engineer.

Jansons institute of Technology, an Engineering college has been started this year in Karumathampatti, coimbatore. In karumathampatti area there are already Two engineering colleges namely, 'Tamilnadu college of engineering' and 'Parks college of engineering' which offers aeronautical engineering in kaniyur.

This is from the same management of Jansons school of business.

Jansons institute offers,

BE-Mechanical Engineering
BE-Civil Engineering
BE-Computer Science and Engineering
BE-Electronics and Communication Engineering.

They also offer Jansons Awards for top +2 students. For district level topper Rs 25,000 and state level topper Rs 100000 is offered.


AICTE L.O.I NO.: 07/08/TN/E&T/2009/23 DT 05.02.2009
(To be affiliated to Anna University, Coimbatore)

Karumathampatti, Coimbatore - 641 659, PH: 0421 2264900 (10 lines)
FAX: 0421 2334742

Best wishes to all aspirants!

Tamil wedding ceremony - How Tamil marriages are counducted.

Around the globe various communities and cultures follow different customs during marriage ceremonies. In India especially in TamilNadu where majority Tamil people live, the wedding ceremony is elaborate and interesting.

In Tamilnadu itself there are various religious and communal groups that have distinct cultures that reflect in their wedding functions.

Wedding is a month long process in Tamil culture. It begins by giving horoscopes of potential brides/grooms to friends,relatives and marriage brokers.

Horoscope matching is done by both parties (bride and grooms family). There are 10 matches or 'pathu porutham'. When the horoscope matches the inquire about each others background like education, social status, profession wealth etc., This is commonly done by friends/relatives. When both people are satisfied about each other family a meeting is arranged by broker or third party. In this meeting the bride and groom meet for the first time. This is typically done in bride's home or a nearest Temple. They meet and talk. When they give acceptance/approval parents proceed further. If bride/groom doesn't like another for some reason (personality, profession, education) there will be no marriage. Otherwise parents talk further to effect marriage.

The next step would be fixing various dates like 'Kai Nanaithal', purchase of garments, 'Nichayathartham' Or Fixing of marriage, 'Muhurtham' etc.,

The next thing is eating at each other house. Members and realatives of the bride will go to groom's house and will have breakfast/lunch. On the same day Grooms family members will go to brides house and have a meal.

In all the occasions both parties share the cost. For example if bride purchase wedding garments for 30000 and groom for 20000 the share will be 25000. This is what happen in my city, Coimbatore, my community, Gounder. Different community follow different methods.

The next major functions is Nichayathartham or Mangalyam. In this occasion both families exchange salt which confirms marriage between bride and groom. Mangalyam in gold is given to bride by the Groom.

Next will be wedding occasion. Before the day of muhurtham there is pattini virundhu. Then muhurthakal will be arranged. Next morning muhurtham will take place. Both bride and groom will exchange 'Maalai'. Then Groom will tie the yellow thread/thaali. There are so many minor customs like seer, sambandhi virundhu, pongal etc.,

There after mappillai alaipu and pen alaippu will take place. Finally at the end of the day Groom will go to Brides home and stay there for few days.

In brides home the much awaited 'Santhi Muhurtham' will take place at auspicious time given by an astrologer. This is the 'First Night' in which the boy and girl know each other physically, where sexual intercourse will take place.

In TamilNadu dowry is an issue in southern districts. In coimbatore and other areas dowry is not prominent. In chettiar community dowry is prominent and brides family offers various jewels, household items, kitchen utensils in silver etc., In kongu vellalar community dowry is not explicit. But Groom is provided with Gold chain/Ring, New cot and bet, furniture etc.,

LTTE leader Prabhaharan alive, Latest News!

This is the latest news about the demised LTTE chief V.Prabhakaran, he is alive and will make contact with people in future.

I learned this from Pro-LTTE website Head of International Secretariat of the Intelligence wing of the LTTE, Mr. Arivazhakan, told this new to TamilNet, according to

This is really sensational news as we believe prabhaharan is dead and his death is confirmed by DNA tests and photographs and video evidence.

I think Top members of the LTTE want to make people believe prabhaharan is alive in order keep the organization united and strong. Without prabhakaran LTTE is doomed.

One thing is sure. We can not believe this statement unless Prabakaran makes a public appearance or make some video recording or talk over telephone or make contact by other media. The following is an extract from TamilNet.

"Head of International Secretariat of the Intelligence wing of the LTTE, Mr. Arivazhakan, who contacted TamilNet Friday categorically denied the reports that the LTTE leader Mr. Velupillai Pirapharan has been killed. Mr. Arivazhakan urged the global Tamil community not to trust the 'engineered rumours,' being spread by the Government of Sri Lanka and its military establishment."

To read the original TamilNet Article Click Here.

Thursday, May 21, 2009

Prabhaharan's death - A mystery?

In my previous posts i have posted videos and photographs of the dead LTTE leader prabhakaran. These evidences clearly confirmed his death. He is not hiding anywhere on this planet earth and gone to heaven definitely.

But still there are mystery and doubts about his death.

The Srilankan military initially stated prabhaharan and other top rebel leaders were kill while attempting to escape by van. They told the bodies were burnt as the VAN caught fire. Later they found the body at Nandhikadal lagoon. The have found another hundred bodies of LTTE fighters.

I don't think prabhaharan tried to escape in the last minute. I he wished so he could have done it a few months ago. He understood defeat was inevitable and wished a heroes death. He either committed suicide by blowing up his head or shot by srilankan army.

In either case he has become a martyr for Tamil cause. He fought tirelessly for over 30 years for separate Eelam. Now his dream has come to a bitter end. No Eelam is possible with a determined and courageous leader like him. I salute him at this moment. May his soul rest in peace.

What happened to his wife madivadani and daughter? Who is the second-in-command in LTTE leadership. Will the organization disintegrate immediately after prabhaharan's death? Will they reemerge after some time?

Only Time will answer these questions. Let us wait until then.

Wednesday, May 20, 2009

LTTE supremo V.Prabhaharan's body found - video

The Srilankan Army has found the dead body of the LTTE leader Prabhakaran's dead body. This YouToube Video gives convincing evidence that the rebel leader Prabaharan is dead, and thus confirms the claims of SriLankan Government and army. Earlier the Srilankan army announced on state Television that Decades long fight with LTTE is over and terrorism is ousted from the country. There were doubts and speculations about his death. Now with the video and DNA tests the death has been confirmed.

Watch the Video:

Quest for Tamil Eelam has come to an end with Prabaharan's dead

With the death of LTTE supremo prabhakaran the quest for separate Tamil Eelam has almost come to a bitter end. Rumors and suspicions about his death have been removed yesterday with the Sri Lankan Government releasing photographs of the Dead Leader. Still LTTE's Padhmanaban alleges that their leader is still alive and well. But there is no credit to his allegation. If he is alive he can express himself with latest photos are a simple tape recording/video recording, to disprove Srilankan army's statement. The photograph released by the Srilankan Government and the photo identity found with the body and DNA tests done, confirms their statement. The world's most dangerous terror outfits invincible leader met his fate in a way unknown to common. somebody speculates that he committed suicide, The SLA (Sri Lankan Army) version tells that he died by gun battle with army.

Still there are mysteries about his death:

1. There are various versions about the death. First the Army told that he died of explosion and fire while attempting to flee by Van. Later they told that he died of gun fire with bullet on his head.

2. The photograph released was only that of face. The full size photo is not released. This leads to suspicions that it might be a fabricated photo.

3. LTTE and its supporters still claiming that their leader is alive and well.

But these are only beliefs to console ourselves. The possibility/probability of prabaharan being alive is very very less. Mystery around his death is comparable to the death of Idian Freedom Fighter subash Chandara Bose. Still most people in India belives Subash Chandra Bose is alive and living somewhere. That is a nonsense.

As the decades old fight of LTTE for separate country for Tamil people comes to an end International Community must help Tamils get their political rights. President Mahinda Rajapakshe addressed in the parliament and told that Tamil will rights and will be treated equal with Sinhalese.

The photographs were release in the Srilankan Army website

Tuesday, May 19, 2009

LTTE chief prabakaran's dead confirmed

Today the Government of Sri Lanka released photographs of the Dead Tiger chief V.Prabakaran. Earlier day the SLA (Sri Lankan Army) announced that they have killed the LTTE leader Prabaharan and other senior cadres including his son Charles Antony. Rajapakshe Announced that the war has come to an end. ICRC (International Committee of Red Cross had told about the humanitarian crisis unfolding in North eastern srilanka. Vanni, Kilinochi and mullaithevu were the rebel strongholds.

The Pro LTTE website denied the Government statement that prbaharan is dead and its International Relations Head S. Pathmanathan stated that Velupillai Pirapaharan is alive and safe. He will continue to lead the quest for dignity and freedom for the Tamil people.

More News.

Monday, May 18, 2009

LTTE leader prabaharan is dead!?

I was shocked when i was told that the LTTE's chief Veluppillai Pirabaharan was killed by the srilankan military. After 5 months of war the SLA (Sri Lankan Army) captured all the LTTE controlled parts in north eastern Srilanka. The remaining LTTE members were surrounded by the Army. Today Afternoon, news came from Srilankan officials that the LTTE leader V.Pirapaharan along with other senior members including Nadesan, puledevan, soosai, Pirabaharan's son Charles Antony were ambushed and killed while they try to escape the war zone by Van. But the Srilankan Government has not yet released any photographs or body of the Dead LTTE chief.

If this be true, decades long battle for Tamil Eeelam has come to a bitter end. The dream will not materialize. Tamil will forever be second citizen in srilanka. This is a black day for all Tamil people all over the world.

Sunday, May 17, 2009

My experiences with paid surveys

One year back i started by quest to some money online. I Googled to gather information regarding online works/jobs but could not find any genuine jobs. There are so many scams, bonzi schemes and frauds on the internet. Finally i read an article regarding Paid online surveys. These websites undertake surveys on behalf of companies. The companies want the opinion about their products/services in order to increase the quality of products/services. For the participation they an amount.

I joined a number of recommended websites and enrolled myself as a panel members. The reward for undertaking surveys range from Cash, Gift certificates, Entry to sweepstakes and free product trials and much more. The chances of getting survey invitations depends on various factor like your education, profession and Geographical location. Those in USA and Europe get more invitations than the people India and other Asian countries.

So far i have participated in so many surveys. Whenever a survey is available you will get an email notification. When you click the survey link you will asked several questions. This is a screening process. Those who qualified in this process will be taken to paid survey. The survey duration range from 10-60 minutes. The reward also may range from 10-300 INR (Indian Rupees).

The minimum payout is typically 1000-2000 INR. The only site in which i reached the payout is Ciao Surveys. They mailed me the Indiatimes Gift Certificates When i asked for payout. I purchased goods online using these vouchers. I subscribed for India Today Magazine and few computer stationeries.

So far i have not received cash from any sites. But i have earned money from freelance jobs available on the internet. I will discuss about it later.

For your benefit i have given links to survey websites. You too can join and earn cash online.

1. Ciao Surveys

2. YourSay

3. Survey Savvy

4. Planet Pulse

5. Brand Institute

Kongu peravai lost in all 12 MP seats

The results are out for 2009 parliament elections. I was shocked to know Kongunadu Munnettra peravai lost in all 12 constituencies. Even in kongu strongholds like Tirupur, Pollachi and Coimbatore they got only 3rd place. The reason is not enough gounder votes to peravai, i think. But it is not that bad. Only after 3 months of starting the party the got more than 1 lakh votes. In pollachi Best Ramasamy got more than 1 lakh votes, in coimbatore Er.Easwaran also got more than 1 lakh. But not enough to win, even to get second place.

I hope in the next MLA election they can win seats in rural areas like Palladam, pollachi, pongalur etc.,

But the peravai members worked sincerely and enthusiastically to win. I appreciate that spirit and i wish the Kongu Peravai victories in the future.

Saturday, May 16, 2009

Motorola Service centre in Coimbatore

Motorola India has authorized service center in coimbatore. The center name is Redington india limted. The address is:

Redington India P.Ltd.
NO. 93a, Prasad Chambers,
East Arokiasamy Road,
Near Hotel Annapoorna,
R.S puram,
Combatore. PH: 0422-4369366

I recently brought my Motorola W388 to service. The battery charger was not working and ear phone also not working. My warranty was in force. The received my phone any issue a work order slip, and asked to come back after a week. I went there after a week and they promptly replace the old one with new charger and ear phone. Good service. It reposed my faith in Motorola's service.

But Motorola should develop new models with latest technologies and innovations in order to survive in the competition.

I wish to purchase a RAZR/ROKR model in the near future.

LG GM200 - Dynamite mobile handset

This is the latest LG mobile in Dynamite series - LG GM200, released in may, 2009.

It supports 2G Networks GSM 900 / 1800 / 1900, Size 106x48x14.4 mm and weights 85 g
It has TFT display with 256K colors with 176 x 220 pixels, 2.0 inches. The mobile has speakerphone with 3 speakers (two stereo+one woofer) an excellent offer at a low price with 3.5 mm Audio jack (you can connect it to larger speakers/home theatre). As a bonus Dolby Surround Sound Technology is also there in LG GM200.

The phonebook can hold 1000 entries. Call records include 50 dialed, 50 received, 50 missed calls. It has internal memory of 14 MB with MicroSD slot (TransFlash) up to 2GB. It also has EDGE connectivity at 236.8 kbps with out 3G.

The LG GM200 offers an excellent quality camera of 2 Mega Pixels with video Recording at 15fps.

It has USB v2.0 support and WAP 2.0 & xHTML browser.

Another good feature is Good FM radio with RDS, built-in antenna. Included Games are Sudoku Puzzle, ZooZooClub.

Available in Black, Silver, Gold (GM200); Black, Red (GM205) colors

It can support following media formats:



Standard battery, Li-Po 1100 mAh
Stand-by 450 h
Talk time 8 h 24 min

It is available at around 6000 INR in coimbatore/chennai. An excellent deal with great features. Rush now to grab your piece!

Friday, May 15, 2009

Election Results 2009

According to The leading positions at 9:40 AM

Party Positions - Tamilnadu

Results Declared : 0
Party Leading Won
DMK + 28 0
AIADMK+ 11 0
DMDK 0 0
BJP+ 0 0
Others 0 0

In coimbatore Leading positions are changed between ADMK and DMK. Kongunadu Munnetra peravai has no leading.

All India Party Positions

Results Declared : 0
Party Leading Won
UPA 126 1
NDA 70 0
Third Front 42 1
Fourth Front 9 0
Others 10 0

The Election commission of india's website experience heavy traffic today!

Textile strike in somanur

Textile grey gada producers in somanur have called on a strike for two weeks. They strike is aimed at increasing demand in the markets like erode, mumbai, etc., A number of powerloom units in and around somanur have participated in the strike.

notebook, laptops

Which is the perfect notebook computer for you? The answer depends on various factors. Your budget, usage, requirement and much more.

For a beginner its better to buy a laptop in middle or lower budget. Nowadays good laptops are available from 20000 INR onwards.

I use lenovo an IBM Brand. It has dual core 1.7 MHz intel mobile Processor, 512 MB RAM, 80 GB Hard Disk Drive and 15 inch screen with bluetooh/wireless options.

I purchased it an year back from a Coimbatore Dealer. So far it has been a fantastic companion without causing any problem. It was preloaded with DOS when i purchase. Then i format it and installed Windows XP os.

The battery capacity is about 3 hours. It is not get heated much as HP/compaq notebooks my friends bought. So my vote is for lenovo. laptops buy from lenovo.

I have not taken it to service yet. I can fix all software problems myself, as i am computer graduate. I don't know where lenovo service center located in tamilnadu/coimbatore, but it is not hard to find.

This is my personal experience with lenovo. It my recommendations. But you can use your free will select your choice.

Have a good day!

Baby names in tamil

Do you have a boy/girl baby not yet named? Do you want a tamil name with numerological matching?

I maintain a database of thousands of tamil names for hindu, muslim or christian baby. I can list out names for birth star/numerology of the baby's birth number.

Please mail me to get the list ( of tamil baby name list.

Coffee Toddy

Toddy coffee is a patented cold brewing method invented and patented by Todd Simpson, an American. Coffee Toddy is prepared by grinding coffee beans at a coarse setting and soaking those grounds in cold water for a prolonged period of time (usually 12 hours or more). The result is concentrated coffee diluted with water or milk. It is served steaming hot, cold or with chocolate.

You find the exact brewing method here.

Election results will be known in 20 hours

The countdown has started. Who will occupy the prestigious Prime minister chair in New Delhi. Congress? BJP? Third Alliance? Fourth Alliance? Everybody is nervous and biting nails.

The polling for 15th lok sabha for Indian Parliament has ended on 13th may. Counting will start by tomorrow 8 am and results and leading status will known by 10-12 am.

By tomorrow afternoon we can ascertain who will form the next Government at Delhi.

Lets come to Tamilnadu. A number of Exit polls were conducted by major medias. They predict that AIADMK alliance will get majority of the seats. The reasons being Electricity problem, Unemployment problem, widespread corruption, Srilankan war problem and so many regional issues.

In my region (coimbatore) the newly formed Kongunadu munnetra peravai has gained popularity. Basically it represents the Gounder community in the kongu region. It has tremendous support in village and suburban areas. Pollachi, coimbatore, Tirupur, erode are the major kongu strongholds. Overall they are contesting in 12 Lok sabha constituencies out of 40 in tamilnadu.

Best Ramasay, the party chief is contesting in pollachi where other candidates from DMK and ADMK are from same Gounder community.

In coimbatore the contest is between Prabhu of congress and Er.Easwaran, General secretary of Kongu peravai. A neck to neck contest is expected here. It is difficult to guess who has the edge. Let us wait and see.

Thursday, May 14, 2009

Windows 7 Release Candidate

Microsoft released the much awaited Windows 7 operating system. The Windows 7 RC (Release Candidate) is available for testing. After the failure of their Vista operating system, Microsoft released the next version. It is expected that the shortcomings of the Vista Operating System has been overcome by the new version.

System requirements for Windows 7 Release Candidate:

1 GHz or faster 32-bit (x86) or 64-bit (x64) processor
1 GB RAM (32-bit) / 2 GB RAM (64-bit)
16 GB available disk space (32-bit) / 20 GB (64-bit)
DirectX 9 graphics processor with WDDM 1.0 or higher driver

It is available for download until july, 2009. The software will expire on june 1, 2010.

If you're running Windows Vista, you can install Window 7 RC without having to back up and reinstall your programs and data. But to be on the safe side, please do back up your data before you start.

You can Download it now.

Coconut politics

Pollachi in southern India is considered coconut belt. There are several thousand acres of coconut plantation in pollachi. The main livelihood of farmers here is coconut. But due to fluctuating market price and low yield due to drought farmers are struggling. There is no fixed government price for coconut nuts from which oil is extracted.

Recently due to the efforts of Kongu Peravai, a newly formed political party in the Kongunadu region farmers are extracting toddy - an low alcoholic beverage. Though it is banned by the government farmers are engaged in the act. They earn good money nowadays by selling at 40 rupees a liter.

Here is the wikipedia definition of toddy:

In parts of India, the unfermented sap is called "Neera" ("Padaneer" in Tamil Nadu) and is refrigerated, stored and distributed by semi-government agencies. A little lime is added to the sap to prevent it from fermenting. Neera is said to contain many nutrients including potash. Palm toddy also forms the base for a drink popular in Goa, known as Goan Feni. Palm sap begins fermenting immediately after collection, due to natural yeasts in the air (often spurred by residual yeast left in the collecting container). Within two hours, fermentation yields an aromatic wine of up to 4% alcohol content, mildly intoxicating and sweet. The wine may be allowed to ferment longer, up to a day, to yield a stronger, more sour and acidic taste, which some people prefer. Longer fermentation produces vinegar instead of stronger wine.[3] Tamil Sangam literature contains many references to Toddy (Kallu) and Tirukkuṛaḷ contains a chapter on "Abhorrence of Toddy".

Kamasutra - Ancient book of love making

Recently i came across an ebook on kamasutra. It was written by Vatsyayana lived in ancient india. It describes in detail about the art of love making - sexual life of man and woman. It has detailed pictures of various poses while making love.

The Kama Sutra may have been produced at any time between AD 100 and AD 400, and it was written in an India that no longer exists. IN those days, the ideal citizen cultivated an ideal life. He surrounded himself with friends, made love as if it were an art form, ate and drank well, was interested in painting and music, and regarded himself as a fair lord and master.

The Kama Sutra was written for the nobility of ancient India, by a nobleman. Vatsyayana thought of life as consisting of dharma, artha, and kama. Dharma was the qcquisition of religious merit; artha was the acquistion of wealth; and kama was the acquisition of love or sessual pleasure. These ideals are not that dissimilar from the codes we live by today. Although we aren't so focused on religious merit any more, we do pursue self-knowledge and personal growth; most of us would like to have enough money to enjoy a comfortable lifestle; and most of us would like to be involved in a loving sexual relationship. The main difference is that the world today is far more egalitarian than it was in the time of Vatsyayana. The Kama Sutra was intended as a sort of businessman's textbook-only the subject matter is not money, but sex. It was aimed at men because women had very low status then. That isn't to say that women's needs are ignored in the text-they aren't. Pages of deail are aimed purely at exciting the female partner. The instructions concerning female stimulation are explicit.

The photograph is an indian painting dating back to 18th century.

Write to me to get the ebook (

Mangala vazhthu - download here

Managala vazhthu is a song by poet kambar. Kambar wrote the famous kamba ramayana. He sung mangala vazhthu on the occasion of the marriage ceremony of vallal sadayappar. Sadayappar gave away money to kambar for his song. This song is sung during the marriage ceremonies of kongu vellala gounders.

You can download the song here.

kongu vellalar - resources

Today I got 50% traffic to my site by search terms like kongu vellala,kongunadu munnetra peravai etc., So I understand that people need resources on these topics. So i searched the web and tried to compile a useful list of links on these topics.

I did find a bunch of matrimonial websites for kongu vellala gonders. I omit those sites.

I understand that people are looking for 'mangala vazhthu' a song of kongu. I will try to get the song.


Wikipedia has provided an article about kongunadu munnetra peravai. Its origination, party manifesto and election.


This is a community for Kongu Vellala Gounders. Gounders can join and exchange ideas.


This site provides history of kongu vellarar and boundaries of kongu region as well membership options.


This another community website for kongu people.

Hope this helps you.

Want to be a freelancer?

Looking for a Job? Lost your Job? Want to earn from Home? Want overseas projects?
Please Read on.

This is a period of recession. Everybody is loosing jobs and major companies around the world are laying off workers in order to survive. Automobile sector is largely affected by this recession. It is estimated that the situation will be normal only by the end of 2010.

IT is the next victim of this disaster. Major Indian IT giants like Wipro, TCS, Infosys are laying off workers. In this difficult period IT professionals can try freelance jobs available on the internet. I have used some freelance sites with little success. In most cases the service buyer/employer posts his project requirement and estimated budget. Interested service providers/employees can bid on the project. The employer will assess their qualification and offer the project to one of the bidders. Payment is usually handled by the website which acts as an agent.

You can be a successful freelancer if have IT / programming experience, willingness to work in nights, honesty and perseverance. Projects are available for .NET, PHP, SQL, ORACLE, MYSQL, VB, c#, graphics design, logo design, webdesign, wordpress, joomla, excel and other areas.

The following are some genuine freelance websites.

Wednesday, May 13, 2009

Tamilnadu plus two results

According to The Hindu Tamilnadu Higher Secondary XII exam results are scheduled to be announced today.

Results in SMS On Your Mobile:
Tamilnadu 12th std results sms DTHSC ROLLNO to 54545

Results In Your Mail Inbox:
Tamilnadu +2,12th Results ( HSC Resullts ) visit

Other websites:

How to monetize your blog

It is possible to earn money through your blog or website. You can use affiliate programs or other advertising methods to earn money. Google is providing AdSense for publishers. This program allows you to display ads relevant to the content of your site. When a viewer click the ad google pays you an amount.

For more details visit AdSense.

Getting visits!!!

After efforts of more than one year, now, my blog is getting visits daily. At least i get 2-3 visits everyday now. When i first start a blog it was hard to get a visitor even after one month. I posted links in orkut and other free online directories and ads networks. The only secret is you have post articles regularly, so the chances of getting listed in search engine is high. I got all my recent visits through Google search. Thanks to Google.

I think i will become a full time blogger in the future.

Plus two results will be out this week

Tamilandu Government Plus Two (+2) state board examinations results will be out this week according to a government release. It will determine the fate of more than 3 lakh students in tamilnadu. My aunts daughter mithra is also awaiting results.

As usual students are anxious about the results. Depending on the marks they score in +2 they get seats in higher studies. Usually there will be a competition for engineering and medical seats. This year about sixty thousand engineering applications have been sold and everybody is expected to get a seat.

I think IT/computer engineering is not a favorite among students as it was previous years. As the silicon valley is experiencing job cuts due to global economic recession students fear to take IT courses. Major IT companies in Bangalore, Hyderabad and chennai have laid off workers due to the decrease in profits.

SEO - Get your pages indexed by Google

I have been in the web design and SEO business for two years now. Still i have learned very little about SEO secrets. Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is the important task in building web based business/E-commerce. You can create a website with attractive design and multimedia using flash and other tools. But it is useless without a visitor. How do you get a visitor to your site? Almost 90% traffic to a site is through search engine. So you need your site listed in important search engines like google, yahoo and msn. It is also important that in the search results page your site must appear in the 1st page. 90% users don't go beyond 1st page of search result. Google provides webmaster tools to include your site in google search. There are diagnostic tools available to know whether your site is indexed. You can also provide site map.

To know the search engine secrets and get your site listed in search engines email me to get free 'Search Engine Secrets' e-book. (

What is a page rank

Page Rank (PR) is determined by number of incoming and outgoing links to a website. Google uses certain algorithm to determine PageRank of a web page. It is periodically updated. My blog have not yet get ranked by Google. That is why link building is important. Your site must include pages that contain links to other sites that have good page Ranks. Simultaneously other sites must contain links pointing your site. This is the secret of PageRank.

I have given a tool to check your web sites page rank. courtesy:
You can find the tool at the bottom.

Interesting Tamil Blogs

Here are some interesting blogger blogs in Tamil. Content includes political articles, Karunanidhi, jayalalitha, vaiko, srilanka, tamil eelam, LTTE etc. Good time pass is guaranteed.


Election in Tamilnadu

Today the 5th phase of election takes place for the the selection of 15th loksabha. The election is being held in tamilnadu, kashmir. In tamilnadu polling started at 7 am and will end at 5 pm.

I was not able to cast my vote at karavali madappur booth as they told my address has been shifted. The polling official did tell where it was shifted/ where i can cast my vote. I asked the party people of kaniyur to ascertain whether i have vote in kaniyur. To my disappointment they told no. I will try my luck again in madappur.

Prabhu of congress and Easwaran of KNMP (Kongu Nadu munnetra peravai) are the major contestants in coimbatore lok sabha constituency.

A request to world community, the United Nations

Recently the Foreign secretaries of Great Britain and France have taken the Srilankan issue to the United Nations Security council's formal review. Two weeks ago they went to srilanka to assess the humanitarian situation in the north eastern srilanka. The situation is worse with more than hundreds of thousand of civilian caught trapped in the war zone. The srilankan government launched offensive against the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) in the month of january. Since then thousand of innocent tamils have been killed in the fighting. The srilankan army is using heavy artillery and aerial bombing in civilian areas like hospitals and schools.Worst Humanitarian crisis has arisen as a result. Thousands have fled the war zone recently. Britain and France have blamed the srilankan government for this situation. They have asked for ceasefire. But the government stubbornly refused and keep shelling and bombing the civilian areas.

I ask on behalf of the innocent Eeelam people - the minority tamils , the United Nations and other western powers to stop the war. The United states should intervene at this stage. We consider Barak Obama as Saviour of downtrodden,poor and racially discriminated people. The US must use its status as worlds super power to stop this war. Washington must act immediately before thousands more people are dead. A mere signal of us intervention in favor of Tamils can make Rajapakshe rethink about his policies toward minority Tamils. The cruelty, discrimination, torture, abduction and rapping are common in internment camps, where innocent Tamil people are held. We beg Barack Obama, the most powerful man on the universe to act on behalf of Tamils.

Here i have posted some photographs depicting the suffering of Tamils.

you can read the true story of the conflict between tamils and sinhalese from The Unspeakable Truth.

Stop this war against humanity. Srilankan war crimes

My blood is boiling at the sight of poor,innocent people dying at the hands of cruel srilankan army. The srilankan government is determined to wipe the tamil community out of northern srilanka. A land were tmails are minority and claiming separate nationhood since the independence from Britain fifty years ago. The three months war has done nothing but killing hundreds of thousand of tamil civilians including women and children. The government refused to ceasefire despite repeated international calls. The Red cross and other international organizations are blaming srilankan government for bombing the no fire zone. Thousands of civilians are trapped inside 15 land along with LTTE fighters. The LTTE chief Prabhakaran is still believed to be hiding at vanni, north eastern srilanka. Several thousands of people are kept in internment camp. Food and medicine are scarce in those camps. President Mahinda Rajapakshe and his brother gothabaya rajapakshe are behind these war crimes. They must be brought to justice.

Srilankas war against humanity

In the name of war on terror srilankan government is killing thousands of civilians everyday. Innocent children and women are being harassed and killed daily. Since the offensive started against LTTE three months ago more than ten thousand people are killed and several thousands are wounded/injured. International community is sleeping without any action against srilankan government. Mahinda Rajapakshe is emboldened by the inaction of India and international community. Vanni located in north eastern sri lanka is the last LTTE stronghold. Recently the Srilankan military breached the security barriers put up by the LTTE. Still thousands of civilian, ethnic minority tamils are entrapped in the area. Srilankan army is repeatedly shelling hospitals schools and other civilian targets.

Pro tiger website tamilnet has more news on the subject.

The photograph depicts children killed by srilankan airforce bombing in chencholai village in northern srilanka.

Tuesday, May 12, 2009

Nokia 5800 xpressmusic phone

I am a motorola user but frustrated with their models i want to bounce back to nokia models.

Nokia 5800 Launched formely it known as Nokia Tube. Noia 5800 targeted for Music lovers. But Nokia 5800 also offers latest technologies like 3G, GPS big touchscreen etc.

Nokia 5800 Features and Specs

* 8GB Micro SD Card you can Extend upto 16GB for all your music collection
* Store upto 6000 tracks in your nokia 5800
* 3.2 inch (640×360 and 16:9 aspect ratio) touchscreen little smaller to iphone 3.5 inch
* 3.2 MP Camera- Carl Zeiss Optics with 3x Digital Zoom
* Symbian S60 5th Edition
* 3.5mm jack
* You Can record DVD quality Videos 30fps
* 3.5G
* Wi-Fi
* Bluetooth
* Stereo FM with RDS

The device has been priced at 20000 INR

visit Nokia india for more details.

Monday, May 11, 2009

I met my old friends

Today i met college friends in tirupur while inviting for marriage. In the morning i went to segudanthali to karthis house. Maniannan also came with me. From there we went to avinashi to meet kesavaraj. With him we went to sundar's house. From there to viswanathans house. Then to meet ARun where mohan also there. Then to Devaraj's house and finally pathy in somanur, easwaran, muthu, ponnusami in kpattty.

Sunday, May 10, 2009

3 posts per day

I am determined to make 3 posts on this blog on various subjects. This would increase traffic and my page rank on Google. I am planning to bring about more websites and portals in the future. I am interested in starting online business that sells products online. Anyone interested in starting online business please contact me I can help you setup an online business. Technically i am sound in PHP, ASP .NET, SQL and general programming. An online sales business can be started in a single day by registering a domain and hosting with free hosting sites. We can use opensource packages like Zen cart, oscommerce, magento, xcart.
So anyone want to start online sales, please contact me

Naadi astrology

This is a fascinating technique used to predict past, present and future of a person. Typically a Naadi reader takes the thumb impression of a person who wants reading and search a volume of palm leaves matching the thumb and makes predictions. Those leaves are said to be written by maharishis like Agasthiyar, brihu etc., Originally found at vaitheeswaran koil near chidambaram district of tamilnadu.

Unlike horoscope reading of traditional astrology naadi can make pinpoint predictions like name of father mother, wife etc.,

I will write more on this subject in my astrology blog Astrolgoy AtoZ

You can find more on this subject in yahoo groups Naadi Astrology at Yahoo Groups

Saturday, May 9, 2009

India General Elections 2009

The last phase of lok sabha election will take place in four days on 13th may 2009. No party will gain single majority in this election, according to sources. Neither BJP nor congress will get maximum number of seats in order to form a government. A collation will be formed as usual. I will elaborate on tamilnadu, southern india.
In tamilnadu there are 40 loksabha constituencies. Major parties are the DMK, ADMK, congress, communist party, MDMK, TMDK, KNMP, PMK, Viduthalai chiruthai. DMK have made an alliance with the congress party. The party leader karunanidhi has taken ill and was not attending the campaigns. Today the prime minister Manmohan singh and congress chief sonia gandhi visit tamilnadu. Still 4 days left for polling all the parties are desperately making efforts to get the votes. In coimbatore and pollachi we expect the 'Kongunadu Munnetra Peravai' to win. This is a newly formed party, only four months old. The party is led by MR Best.Ramasamy with Er.Easwarn, general secretary. The party mainly focus on the issues of Kongu Region comprising Erode, Namakkal, karur, Tirupur, Coimbatore, pollachi. They are concerned about farmers, especially coconut farmers. They KNMP has been allocated 'gas cylinder' as their symbol. ADMK's jayalalitha is also making great efforts to get votes. She tours everywhere and talks about various regional issues and misuse of government machinery by karunanidhi. we anxiously waiting for the results, which would be out by 16th may evening.

e-bay, source of extra income

If want to earn income online you can promote your off line business by selling goods through e-bay. You can sell products ranging from car/bikes, computers, jewellery, apparels, electronics, garments, books, cosmetics, music or anything you want. You can sell used goods too. Antiques, coins and stamps can be sold easily on e-bay. You have to register with or if you live in India. Registered users can sell their personal items through competitive bidding. Once i got sold my 4 years old Timex watch and got payment by paisa-pay online payment. But i could not send the watch as all courier companies refused to accept the parcel of watch. Eventually i canceled my order and sent back the payment.

Write to me to become a successful e-bay seller.
click to send mail

Search engine optimization

This is an important process which ensures your website gets top search engine ranks. Your site will get traffic only if it is listed the first page of Google, yahoo or msn search. The following text is taken from

Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of improving the volume or quality of traffic to a web site from search engines via "natural" ("organic" or "algorithmic") search results. Typically, the earlier a site appears in the search results list, the more visitors it will receive from the search engine. SEO may target different kinds of search, including image search, local search, and industry-specific vertical search engines.

As an Internet marketing strategy, SEO considers how search engines work and what people search for. Optimizing a website primarily involves editing its content and HTML coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines.

The acronym "SEO" can also refer to "search engine optimizers," a term adopted by an industry of consultants who carry out optimization projects on behalf of clients, and by employees who perform SEO services in-house. Search engine optimizers may offer SEO as a stand-alone service or as a part of a broader marketing campaign. Because effective SEO may require changes to the HTML source code of a site, SEO tactics may be incorporated into web site development and design. The term "search engine friendly" may be used to describe web site designs, menus, content management systems and shopping carts that are easy to optimize.

Another class of techniques, known as black hat SEO or Spamdexing, use methods such as link farms and keyword stuffing that degrade both the relevance of search results and the user-experience of search engines. Search engines look for sites that employ these techniques in order to remove them from their indices.

There is an excellent book with step-by-step instructions that teach you on SEO.
Please mail me to get the E-book mailme

Wednesday, May 6, 2009

Kongu Vellala Gounder history


The history of the Kongu Vellala Gounder caste is one of the most obscure along with the history of the Kongunadu region itself. The Gounders have been credited by many as unique among the other caste groups of the region and southern India as a whole. The Kongu Vellala Gounders are appreciated for their varied qualities like untiring hardwork, objective nature, high moderation, honesty, humanitarian spirit, commitment, philanthrophy, strong bonding, innovative mind and reliability. They have been instrumental in the welfare of the Kongunadu zone, which is predominantly rainfed but blest with a cooler tropical plateau climate. This region supports the Tamil Nadu state from economic collapse and single handedly manages its fame.
The secrets for such a developed region go back to the Gounder caste which mostly go unresearched partly due to the heavy stench of ideological biases of contemperory Tamil historians and partly due to the jelousey and the resulting fear of the caste itself. The author of this blog, himself a Gounder belongs to the Elumathur Panangadai clan, seeks to venture at the various facets of the inseperable Gounder and Kongu histories. The readers are advised to have a prior reading of the author's blog on Kongu history before going through this blog for easing their strain.


The Gounders are the single largest agrarian and intra-marriagable caste hailing from the Kongunadu (Sans: Ganganadu) region which forms the western part of the present linguistically organised Tamilnadu state. Reasearch and common knowledge have shown that these people, alongwith their long seperated cousins, the Vokkaliga Gowdas of southern Karnataka are some of the most well organised groups from Southern India. The Vellalas show even more intricately arranged Socio-cultural hierarchy than the Vokkaligas. Unofficial population estimates give figures around the seventy to eighty lakh margin. There have also been some exaggerated estimates from about one to one and a half crore people of the caste. The population surpasses that of the other landed castes as a single mass unit.

The Gounders have however reached this level coming down from 1/4th of the total state popualtion during the British Raj. This is even before the government launched popular population control measures which has surprised the social scientists. The child control measures started from the pre-independence era, mostly as a localised phenomenon due to high economic growth. When the government announced the two children norm, the Gounders were already having upto 80% of single child families. Now the estimates stand around a near hundred.Today one can see single child families in thousands of their families thereby might be credited as the only caste in India having reverse growth ratio thus projected to lose its majority status in the region. This along with the nuclear families concept has made the individual families prosper though shattering many of the age old cherished values of Gounders. These single children from the lonely nuclear families (which includes the family of the author himself) have become lonely isolated and self-centered individuals popularly called ''islands''. Thus the community is losing its identity and distinct culture due to over adherence to norms. This materialist lifestyle has resulted in the steady decline of the Gounders to 10% of the total state population from the pre-independence 25%. This self centered lifestyle has resulted in the undesirable increase of egotic personalities unwilling to unite even at the most demanding situations. Thus Gounders are silently slipping into political and demographical doom though outwardly they seem to prosper. We have to remember that no government eternally is steady to guarentee safety and there is always a safety in numbers. Cocerned scientists have warned the community to have atleast two children per family to maintain steady trends.

The traditional Gounder belt is the area now known as Kongu Nadu. This areas comprises the lower nine districts of the lower Kaveri catchment basin, forming the western part of Tamil Nadu: Coimbatore, Ooty, Erode, Karur, Salem, Namakkal, Dharmapuri, Krishnagiri (all taluks of these districts), Dindigul (the taluks of Palani tk., Oddanchatram tk., Dindugul tk., Vedasandur and Kodaikkanal tk northward slopes only), Tiruchirapalli (Tottiyam tk. , Pachamalai and Turaiyur region of the Turaiyur tk. and Musiri panchayat union only), Villupuram (Kalrayan hills only), Perambalur (Pachamalai hills only) and Vellore (Tirupattur tk. only).

By the population statistics, again estimates, These specified regions have a Gounder population somewhere around 50 and 80% of the total regional population.

A secondary population of anywhere between 1 and 5% can be found in the districts of Theni, Madurai, Thanjavur (all in Tamil Nadu), Palakkad, Malappuram, Idukki (all in Kerala), Kollegal, Mysore, Chamrajnagar, Kolar, Mandya, and Bangalore (all five in Karnataka).

Gounder history:

Origin of Kongu and Kongunadu:

Lessons from the Mahabharatam :

The region of Kongunadu originally belongs to the Kurinji (tropical evergreen mountainous) and Mullai types (tropical deciduous plateau) which were originally densely to medium sparsely forested. The Gounders have in living memory, the very different days from now, when people moved around far and wide but within the forested Kaveri catchment valley with their cow herds. These people did not settle down at a single major point in history. There are such cowherds even to be found today in the remote forests of the Sathiyamangalam ghats for example. The herds were vast and mostly belonged to the Bargur cattle type. This is reflected in the Mahabharata references in the Kongunadu where Bhisma and the Kauravas came for a cattle raid which is in the pattern called Vetchi (Tam:வெட்சி) in Sangam literature, where cattle, the primary wealth of the people is taken as stake to initiate a war. Kongumandalasatakam says that the cattle raid was sucessfully repelled by Arjuna (Bruhannala) with Uttarakumaran, the son of the King Viratarayan of Ladapuram (modern Dharapuram) at a skirmish at the banks of the Kanchi (Noyil) (dates: 3100 B.C, Mahabharata). This place was named Tiruppur or the place where the cattle were rerouted back to Ladapuram. These shifting farmer-cattleherd villages were called pattis after the cow pens. The main food products were cow milk and dry crops like Aariyam (Varaku or Ragi), Kambu, Cholam and Tinai. They also exchanged these produce for rice from marginal settled farmers. Many clan or kootam names remind of such great cowherds and marginal landlords.

Lessons from the Annamar and Valipulla Goundan stories:

The fist fixed settlements in Kongu history were at the Amaravati -Noyil valley because of the perennial supply of water from the Palani Koadaikkanal and Vellingiri ranges. The cowherd rearing shifting farmers achieved a sustained state and organised themselves as Velallas or landlords. They later, for deforesting the land brought in the Vettuvar tribes, descendents of Kannappa Nayanar from the Kalahasti region. These Vettuvar hamlets were called Vadugapattis, literally northener's cowpens. The Vettuvars also being sucessful, at one stage became numerically equal to the Vellalars. They also started questioning the authority of Vellalars. This is the point when we see the Vettuva-Vellala war symbolised by the Chinnanan- Periyannan story. The Vettuvars, eventhough being later settlers take advantage of their increased numbers and challenge the Vellalars through committing excesses on Vellala territory and harassing Vellala women. Here is where God or eternal order intervenes. Sivan, in order to support the order, steps in himself brings up the brothers who are killed at birth by their uncle. The first settler of any land has the rights of ruling and defending it, though the ownership might change hands. This is the Indian concept of the native's right. The native Vellalas, who were such an agrarian-warrior tribe or the Vellala-Kshatriya tribe, defeat the Vettuvars and place them under their subjection. Decrease in forests and increase in farming also leads to thier decrease in numbers and increase of Vellala natives.

Valipulla Goundan story also reflects Vellalar - Vettuvar friction but with a different lesson for us. Here when the Vettuva barber asserts his rights to serve the Goundan eventhough he insults him by leaving him half shaved (a great insult in those days) and follows his Vettuva cheiftain, Valipulla refuses his service but the barber insists (here we come to know the right of the so called lower service castes to demand compulsory service). They agree for a caste panchatyat where all important clan leaders are invited as witnesses. The Vettuva barber devises a clever method (because he is the affected party here) where the dog of Valipulla would be offered food by him. If the dog eats it, Valipulla is to accept his services and if not, could refuse him. Here again God (or the spirit of orderliness) in the form of Vinayakar assists Valipulla's dog which urinates on the food. Valipulla then marries his two sons to the two daughters of Vellala Chettiars (a merchant trader community who dealt in agri produce) to beget Kongu Napitha (Nasuvan) children. Again there is a lesson for us. Why should they marry Chettiar girls to beget Napitha children? and Why can't they just become Napithas? According to the rules of Anulomam (recorded earliest in the Manu Smruti), when a higher Varnam boy marries a girl from a lower Varnam, the children born are the Sudras or the service castes who are promotional to the society. If the opposite happens, then it is called Pratilomam where the children born are Panchamas or untouchables. Here the marriage is between the Kshatriya boys and Vaisya girls, where as Manusmruti says, the children begotten are Napithas or barbers. Thus from the demographics of Kongunadu, we come to know that the Anulomam and Pratilomam (intercaste) marriages were near zero and happened only according to calculated marriages to fulfil necessity.

The various people who had settled at different places for agriculture still went to their Patti cowherd gods where they had originated which later were called the Kanikkoils. No other caste in India has such precise Kuladeivams or such kootam (Gotram) system which is to remind us of our greatness and thus culture good qualities befitting to the kootam.

The Sangam age:

We have to remember that though the geographical region is called Kongunadu in Tamil, the name is a derivent of Kangu (கங்கு) (Komaralingam copperplates) and ultimately Kanganadu (கங்கநாடு) (Sanskrit: Ganganadu, or the land of the Ganga people). The region streched throughout the Kaveri catchment basin. As even a 17th century poet, Valasundara Kavirayar in his Kongumandalasatakam versifies the borders of Kongunadu.

வடக்கு நந்திகிரி வராககிரி தெற்கு
குடக்குப் பொறுப்பு வெள்ளிக் குன்று கிடக்கும்
களித்தண்டலை மேவு காவிரிசூழ் நாட்டுக்
குளித்தண்டலை யளவு கொங்கு.

From this we ascertain that the borders of 17th century Kongu were:

Northern: Nandigiri (Nandi hills in Kolar and Tumkur dists. of Karnataka located seventy kilometeres to the north of today's Bengaluru).
Southern: Varahagiri (Panrimalai mountain in the Palani-Kodaikkanal ranges, Panrimalai is referred in it's Sanskrit name).
Eastern: Kudagu and Vellikundru (Kodagu in the Madikeri dist. of Karnataka and Vellingiri hills near Coimbatore which form the border with Kerala).
Western: Kulithalai (Karur dist. located on the Karur- Tiruchirappalli highway).
Further he adds that the region is like a basin (Kavirisoozh) and surprises us with his geographical knowledge through expressing Kongu as the entire Kaveri catchment basin, the Kaveri valley.

This region comprises of the following modern districts of the following states.

In Tamilnadu: Coimbatore, Erode, Udagamandalam, Krishnagiri, Dharmapuri, Salem, Namakkal, Karur, Dindigul (excluding the Nattam, Nilakkottai and southward slopes of Kodaikkanal taluk), Vellore (Tiruppattur taluk only), Villuppuram (Kalrayan hills only), Perambalur (Pachamalai hills only) and Tiruchirappalli (Pachamalai hills, Turaiyur taluk's western parts and Musiri panchayat union).

In Karnataka: Madikeri, Chickmagalur, Hassan, Tumkur, Kolar, Bangalaore Urban, Bangalore Rural, Mandya, Mysore and Chamrajnagar.

In Kerala: Wayanad, Palakkad (villages with a majority Tamil speaking population only), Malappuram (Bhavani river valley only) and Idukki (Amaravati river valley only) .

One thing which got clear beyond doubt after my research which is also commonplace knowledge is that the Kongu region, from the dawn of history is always connected to the southern part of the Karnataka state which is given, which is also called in Karnataka as Mysore Karnataka or Hoysala Karnataka. The Kongu region has always been along with this region as a Geo-historical unit from the dawn of history to the collapse of the Mysore Kingdom and the arrival of the British.

In this era, most of the land becomes cultivated and there is surplus wealth generated for Vellalars. The famous people of this age like Cheran, Kari, etc.., This leads to seperate castes of artisans to emerge. The excavations dating to the Sangam period show great works of art like coins, anklets and other objects of household and luxury necessities emerge. Kongunadu perhaps has yielded the most in metal and embedding industry than any other region of earth at that time. It was the only exclusive source of gold and quality iron to the whole world. The famous sites are:

Kodumanal (world's only gold jewellery embedding centre of those days),
Kundadam (metal works),
Karur (Chera Vanji) (coin mints, anklets, Greco-Roman trade posts, etc..,),
Salem: (first steel workshops whose products were found in the Egyptian pyramids),
lack of necessary exploration stalls efforts to find many other places.
(I am myself taking efforts on my own expenditure and time to explore these fields).

Cheras (their descendents are the Cheran kootam of today) ruled through various feudatories like Kari (another kootam), Pari, Kumanan, Began, Erumai (another kootam), Killi and Gangan (of the Kannan kootam).

The Adiyans (Adi kootam) or the Sathiyaputras mentioned in Asokan inscriptions alongwith the Oris of Rasipuram (Kollimalai) were the major rivals of the Cheras for predominance in this region.

Most of the Kongu Vellalar kootams have Sangam period names, named after a famous Sangam cheiftain, king or a dynasty.

Chera country, wrongly thought at first to be Kerala is ascertained to be Kongu with their capital at Karur Vanji. The Cheras extended thier power to the west coast and then moved their capital permanently there. The Velir or Vellala chieftains of the age did not have absolute powers as also the king. Were just nominal heads who oversaw local administration. The decline of the Cheras resulted in the rise of the Gangas also belonging to the Vellala caste of the Kannuva (Sans: Kanna+ va) gotram.

Thus 'kadayezhu vallalkal'or the last seven benevalent rulers hail from this age. References to the community have been found in the Purananooru of the Sangam age, '' koduval kongar'' and '' karungaik kongar '' ,meaning kongars with battle sickles, kongars with their physical feature of massive arms respectively) and Silappadhikaram ''kongilam kosar'' and '' kudagak kongar'',meaning kongars of the kosar clan of the kosala region and kongars of the kudagu region respectively.

The Gangas:

The rise of the Gangas can be said as the socio-political cementing of the Vellala cheifs of the Gangakulam as the sole lords of the Ganga (Kongu) country. The Cheras also had a few feudatories from other castes. The Gangas, earlier the feudatories of the Cheras themselves filled the powervaccum left by the declining Chera empire. The Cheras became one of the feudatories of the Gangas ultimmately fighting against the common enemy of all Kongu people, the Cholas.

There are various themes of origin of the caste. The common undercurrent in all of them is, that the original name of the caste is Gangakulam (Tam: கங்காகுலம்) which is descended from the king Gangadatta (Sans., meaning one given by the Ganga) (Tam: கங்கதத்தன்) (the name Kongu Vellala Gounder is a relatively new, post-independence classification necessiated nomenclature).

Origin of the Vellalas of the Ganga clan:

The Velalapuranam and Kambar's Mangalavazthu:

The Velalapuranam, a 19th century construction, is not completely reliable due to the ideological implications of the age and the writer. Yet it maintains the original story of the man who originated from the river Ganga called here as Marapalan who started the Gangakulam.
This is a construction based probably on Kambar's Mangalavazhthu ( மங்கல வாழ்த்து) which is eventoday sung during one of the Gounder marriage rites. Kambar himself describes the various rites associated with the Gounder marriage. One is the Kaikorvai (கங்கா குலம் விளங்க கம்பர் சொன்ன...) in which he blesse the Gangakulam couple.

These Vellalas are descendant from the ancient Kshatiriya Suriyavamsam (Solar dynasty) through the Gangakulam (preserved in names like Suriya Kangeyan and titles having Kangeyan).

The Ganga copper plates and inscriptions (ex: Korni and Komaralingam plates) have maintained that the kings of the Gangas always called themselves Kongunis (Sans: of the Kongu). For example Kongunivarma Madhavarayan is the first mentioned ruler who establishes his capital at Kangeyam (Sans: Gangeyam or the seat of the Gangas). Durvinita calls himself as not Gangeya but Durvinita Konguni in his Kannada treatise Kiratararjuniya. Infact, the language spoken by the Gounders itself is called Gangee Tamizh, a language which is very close to original non-sanskritised Kannada. Wilkins, a British historiographer writes an account immediately before the conquering of Mysore (Dheeran Chinnamalai):

"In the southern part of Mysore the Tamil language is at this day named the Gangee from being best known to them as the language of the people of Kankayam". (Wilks, Mysore, p. 4, F, N.2)

Gounder is the name of the headman in a system of decentralised panchayat administration used with various regional variations by distinct castes groups. The root word is derived from Gavunda (கவுண்ட). This system of village administration gained political approval during the rule of the indegenous Ganga dynasty. The posts of the village headmen or the county headman (Ur Gavundar and Nattu Gavundar respectively) were usually assumed by the warrior-agrarian Vellalar clans of the Kongu Nadu region belonging to the ruling house Gangakulam itself. In the earlier similair Velan, Kizhan system during the Sangam period

The Gangas are said to have originated in Ayodhya, belonging to the same Suriyavamsa, Ikshvakukulam as Raman but of the Gangakulam as Ramar belongs to the Raghukulam.
by Dr. Harihar Kanungo:

Gangavamsa has spread all over India and the historians are completely silent about it. The kings of the Ganga dynasty had got their pedigree inscribed by their brahmin eulogists as well as the courtiers. In this regard, Dr. S.N. Rajaguru has given the following opinion:“Different royal dynasties, while narrating their genealogy, were eager to identity themselveswith the famous solar or lunar dynasties of the Puranas”. Dr. H. K. Mahatab and other historians have given similar opinions and have said that for this reason the genealogy available from these inscriptions do not tally with the historical facts. For all these reasons, we have to trace out the common men of the Ganga dynasty or Ganga community spread all over India and try to know their ancestry in order to unravel the mystery surrounding the origin of the Ganga dynasty. It can be asserted that the historical Ganga dynasty has evolved from among the common men of the Ganga dynasty or Ganga community. Hence this writer has made an humble attempt to discuss the family history of Ganga dynasty or Ganga community, while trying to establish the origin of the Ganga dynasty. A brief account of the Ganga dynasty available from the inscriptions engraved by the royal dynasties of Ganga community may be discussed. It is known from the inscription of Jainaguru Simhanandi, compiled by B. Lewis Rice that the forefathers of Ganga dynasty coming from Ayodhyapur under the leadership of Vishnugupta had initially settled at Ahichhatra located in the basin of the rivers Ganga and Yamuna. Later on they proceeded to Southern India in quest of new territory. Being advised by Jainaguru Simhanandi, Vishnugupta along with others came to Karnataka and established a new kingdom. According to this inscription the Ganga dynasties of Karnataka and Kalinga had come from Northern India. In the opinion of Dr. N. K. Sahu, both the western and eastern Ganga dynasty belong to one and the same dynasty and they came from North India in 5th century A.D. and established new kingdoms in Kalinga and Karnataka respectively. We cite here the views of B.Lewis. Rice on the above mentioned inscription of Jainaguru Simhanandi: “The origin of the Gangas is derived from Iksvaku and trace back to Ayodhyapura. Under Visnugupta the seat of government was moved to Ahichhatra, which, it is hinted, as Vijayapura. With the arrival of Dadiga and Madhava in the South, at Ganga-perur and the establishment of the Gangavadi kingdom in Mysore aided by Simhanandi, we seem to come to historical events.
It is known from the Vizagapattanam & Korni copperplate inscriptions 16 of Chodaganga Deva that by 5th century A.D., eighty kings of the Ganga dynasty had ruled over Gangavadi (Kongunadu) of Kuvalalapuram (Kolar). If one king had ruled at least for a period of twenty years, then these eighty kings would have ruled for about 1600 years. If we consider from this angle the Ganga dynasty had appeared 1600 years before 5th century A.D., which means their origin dates back to 11th century B.C. In this context we may mention that historians have agreed that the Mahabharata war was fought in 9th century B.C. This means the Ganga dynasty had appeared and achieved renown much before the events described in the epic Mahabharata. It has been noted above that Sevananda Bharati has established ancient Tamralipta or Modern Tamluk as the primary abode of the Ganga dynasty.
It is clear from the facts stated in the Madalapanji and Korni copperplate inscription of Chodaganga Dev that the Gangas are the descendants of a king or an individual named Gangeya who belonged to the solar dynasty. While claiming his descent from some Gangeya in his Korni copperplate inscription, he has bidentified both the ancestors and descendants of Gangeya. But all these have been rejected by historians. However, Dr. Rajaguru, basing on the facts stated by Chodaganga Dev, has accepted Gangeya and the Gangas as belonging to solar dynasty.

Another website
says, The Ganga dynasty came into existence in 2nd century AD after the name of its founder Gangeya or Gangadutt. Jain Acharya Simhanandi inspired his two disciples Daddigh and Madhav to establish their rule, which they did by constituting the territory of Gangawadi with Kolar as their capital. But actually Madhav Kongunivarma I was the first crowned king of this dynasty, who ruled for a long period during 189-250 AD Jainism was the national religion during his rule. King Durvinita Konguni of this dynasty was the disciple of famous grammarian Acharya Devanandi Pujyapad. Marasingh got victory over several powerful rulers and ruled gloriously. During his last days he became an ascetic. He died with Sallekhana in 974 AD at Bankapur in the feet of his Jain preceptor Ajitsena. The Ganga rulers built several Jain temples and established Jain institutions. (including five at Vijayamangalam, Jinapuram (Seenapuram), Vellode, Poondurai and Perundurai all in Erode dist.)
Punnata region:
COIMBATORE, the headquarter of the district which goes by its name in the State of Madras, is well-known to-day as the "Manchester of South India." There is perhaps not another place in the whole of this region to equal it not only in the numerous spinning and weaving mills it possesses but also in the general standard of wealth, health civilisation and culture. But few are interested in studying the history of this district and particularly the development of culture in this area. Of the era preceding the period of British occupation of the district, which began in 1799, particularly little or nothing is known.
In this paper I propose to make an enquiry into a subject which forms part of a larger whole, viz., the cultural development of the Coimbatore region in early times and the particular subject for enquiry here is an estimate of the Jain contribution to this quota. So many vestiges of Jainism are to be found in this district that there is no doubt about the great influence this religion must have exerted over the people of this region in early times. That it must have been much more than any one would suspect is certain. Names of places like seenapuram clearly remained one of the early jain influent over the region; while old jain shrines found in places like. Vijayamangalam, Tirumurthimalai and Karur bear an equally strong evidence to the same. A figure of the Jain Thrithankara is found in Tirumurthimalai; and a number of Jain beds are found to this day in Arunattarmalai in Karur Taluk while in Arasannamalai near Vijayamangalam the Neminatha temple has been now converted into a Vinayaka temple. Not only this. The district of Coimbatore in early times seems to have been the home of several Jain scholars, not the least of whom was the great Bavanandi, the author of the celebrated Tamil grammar, Nannul, who seems to have lived in the region of Vijayamangalam in Erode Taluk.
It is impossible for us to explain these vestiges unless we postulate a period of Jain glory in the district at some time during its sojourn in South India. The Kongadesarajakkal, a XVII century Tamil Mss., which has been recently edited by Mr. C. M. Ramachandran Chettiar, Advocate, Coimbatore, (Madras Govt, Oriental Series, VI, 1950) brings to light a set of seven rulers called Rattas (Rashtrakutas?) in this region during the period between 250 A.D. and 400 A.D. Many if not all of them are represented in this work as professors and strong supporters of Jainism. (Ibid., pp. 1-2). In the reign of the fourth ruler, Govindaraya, a grant to the jain Arishtanna is mentioned and in that of the sixth ruler, Kannaradeva, the names of three great Jain theologians, of whom one Naganandi is mentioned by name, are referred to. (Ibid)
The history of the origin of the Ganga dynasty of Mysore indicates even more clearly how deep-rooted was janism in the district of Coimbatore in early times. It would appear that in the closing years of the IV century A.D., King Padmanabha of the Gangas had to send his two sons, Dadiga and Madhava to the south by way of preparing himself to meet his enemy, King Mahipala of Ujjain. (Rice; Mysore and Coorg; p. 31). The rest of the narration as found in Rice's words is as follows:
"When they arrived at Perur, which is still distinguished from other Perurs as Ganga-Perur (in Cuddapah district), they met there the Jain Achariya Simhanandi. He was interested in the story of these Ganga princes and taking them by the hand, gave them instruction and training and eventually procured for them a kingdom."(Rice: Op., cit., loc., cit).
Many Ganga records like the Udayendiram plates of Prithvipati II, the Kudlur grant of Marasimha and the Santara inscription on the Huncha stone* bear clear evidence to the fact that Simhanandi gave them a kingdom and that he was a reputed Jain teacher. The last mentioned record indeed refers to him as "the archariya who made the Ganga kingdom.":
"Ganga-rajyaman madida Simhanandy acharyya."(EC., VIII, Nr. 35)
Indrabhuti in his Samayabhushana names him as a great poet to be kept on par with Elacharya and Pujyapada. (IA., XII, 20). Still, no better description can be given of Simhanandi than what is found in the Jaina record near the Siddhesvara temple at Kallurgudda in Shimoga Taluk:
"The Vijaya or victory to the farthest shore of learning, the full moon to the ocean of the Jaina congregation, possessed of patience and all the ten excellent qualities, his good life, a secure wealth, rejoicing in the modest, his fame extending to the four oceans, keeping at a distance from the evil, a sun in the sky of the Kranurgana, devoted to the performance of the twelve kinds of penance, promoter of the Ganga kingdom-Sri Simhanandiacharyya."(EC., VII, Sh. 4)
On the other hand we owe to the evidence of inscriptional records like those of the Parsvanathi Basti at Sravana Belgola and others to be seen at Kallurgudda and Purale in Shimoga Taluk that Madhava definitely came under the influence of Simhanandi, who initiated him into jain doctrines and conferred on him a kingdom on condition that he always took care to uphold that Faith throughout its confines. (Ibid, also 64). The latter tow give a detailed account of this origin of the Ganga Kingdom, which deserves to be quoted at least in part, as it gives one an idea of the depth of Jain influence that ruled over the region where the Ganga kingdom was founded:
"On Madhava impressing him with his extraordinary energy... Simhanandi made a coronet of the petals of the Karnikara flowers bound it on Madhava's head, gave them (the two brothers) the dominion of all the earth, presented them with a flag made from his peacock fan and furnished them with attendants, elephants and horses. Along with these he gave them also the following advice: 'If you fail in what you have promised, if you do not approve the Jina sasana; if you seize the wives of others; if you indulge in wine and flesh; if you form relationship with the low; if you give not your wealth to the needy; if you flee from the field or battle-your race will go to ruin.
The question that has to be decided here is the identification of Perur mentioned in ganga records. Taken in conjusction with the history of the Rattas, the Kongadesarajakkal furnishes proof that it was on their fall that the Gangas rose to power and began ruling from Skandapura in Kongudesa (which is the ancient name for the territory comprising the modern disteicts of Coimbatore and Salem). The Chronicle would even inform us that the last Ratta ruler changed his religion from Jainism to Saivism and that was the cause of his downfall. Further, all the early activities of Konganivarman-as the first historical ruler of the Ganga house becomes known in all the records of this dynasty-are confined to this Kongudesa. (Kongadesarajakkal (Or Mss. Edn.) pp. 2-3). It is true that we lack definite epigraphic evidence in support of this, which we have mainly only from the Tamil chronicle above referred to. But it must be remembered that in the first place we have only a few records for the Ganga period here referred to; and even the few references that we have to the early grants of the Gangas seem to refer only to places in Coimbatore district. Such are places like "Kudluru" to the west of the Tatla and east of "Marukarevisaya", in which the names of Kudluru and Marukarevisaya are easily identifiable with the present Gudalur and Madukari in this area. (Kudaluru grant of Madhavavarman; MAR., 1930).
The conclusion naturally follows that Per here referred to as the spot on which Madhava was initiated into Jainism and conferred a kingdom on condition that he upheld it through all its confines must be the Perur within 3 miles from Coimbatore. We have numerous evidences to show that at the time referred to and for long afterwards this Perur was indeed an important place. The place referred to by this name cannot be the Perur in Cuddapah district, as Rice surmises, where no Jain remains are to be found. The tratdition is that Dadiga and Madhava were sent to the south of Mysore, as already indicated. Further, the very title assumed by the first ruler as Madhava Konganivarman seems to give an unmistakable proof of this conclusion, since as the Kongadesarajakkal aptly remarks:
As wealth, the Kongu country and great munificence were possessed by him he was styled srimalt Konganivarman Dharmamahadiraja. (Kongadesarajakkal (Taylor's trans.); MJLS., XIV)
While the mention of Simhanandi as a "person of the southern country' in the inscription at Parsvanatha Basti at Sravana Belgola already referred to, seems to set the seal upon this conclusion.
It is an agreed fact that the canarese country of which modern Mysore forms the crown and centre furnished a home for the religion of Mahavira in the days when it was not very much liked by his own countrymen of the north. The Brihatkatha of Harisena clearly refers to the migration of the Bhadrabahu mission from Mysore to Punnata in the years following the dealth of Chandragupta Maurya. (Rice; Mysore Inscriptions, p. 146; IA., XVII 366). Historians are not yet agreed as to what country is meant by the name, 'Punnata.' All available evidences seem to point to the region of S. Coorg and N. Coimbatore district as the region designated as 'Punnata' by Harisena, so that it would appear that a portion at least of the modern district of Coimbatore was the central hearth of Jainism even before the beginning of the Christian era.
Even the name 'Punnata' and be explainted. It seems to be just a corruption of the name, 'Pounnadu' the land of gold. That there was much gold to be had from the region of Coorg and Kongu is unexceptionalble. While the Mysore gold minies bear evidence to this in some indirect way, the XVII century Tamil work, Maduraikalambakam speaks of the "gold that is found in Kondu" (Konguraippon), thus bearing a direct testimony to the Kongu wealth of gold. (The term Ponnadu seems to have been analogous to the name of the Cola country watered by the cauvery, Viz., the 'Punalnadu'.
Thus we are able to posit that the region of modern Coimbatore was a central hearth of Jainism in the south at least three conturies before the Christian era and that it continued to be so for a long time afterwards certainly through-our the period of the Ganga rule. An inscription of the XII century which referring to the Hoysala conquest of Kongu under Vishnuvardhana (1120 AD), Speaks of his general in that region, Gangarajah of great fame as" :a devout Jain. "(See Sastri; Colas, II, i). We need not try to trace the later history of Jainism in Kongu. Probably it came on a period of steady decline from that date onwards. But what has been so far said is enough to explain the numerous Jain vestiges in this region, to be seen to this day.

The Chera kings are of Gounder origin as there is a kootam called Cheran kootam which lives near the seat of the Cheras, Karur.Nagasamy, ASI ex-chairman Tamilnadu writes about the Karur Cheras and Karur as Vanji, the capital of Cheras. He also details of Muziris as modern day [[Musiri]]. The decline of the Cheras brought in the Kannuva (Kannan)kootam as Ganga dynasty.[]. see also Cheras were not Keralites[]
The first Ganga king Kongunivarma mahadirayan crowned himself at Vijayaskandapuram (later called Gangeyam-Kangayam after the Gangas) (ref:Kongudesa rajakkal). The Ganga genealogy and chronology have presented many problems to the historians. The first ruler of the dynasty was Konganivarma Madhava (C.350-370 A. D) who worked to establish his power at the expense of the Banas and by expanding in Kongudesa or the Salem region. He thought it wise to be friendly with the Pallavas, a policy which was followed by the early Ganga rulers. He was succeeded by his nephew Madhava II or Kiriya Madhava (C.370-390 A. D.) who was the son of Dadiga who moved to Dalavanapura. His successor Harivarma (C.390-410 A. D.) is said to have been installed on the throne by the Pallava Simhavarma. During this period, two branches of the Ganga dynasty were established at Paruvi and Kaivara.
Harivarma's son Vishnugopa (C.410-430 A. D.) had a quiet, uneventful reign, and was succeeded by Tadangala Madhava (C.430-466 A. D.). He is said to have been anointed by the Pallava king Skandavarma. His friendly relations with the Pallavas did not prevent him from normalising his relations with the Kadambas. In fact, he married the daughter of [[Kakusthavarma]]. He strengthened the Pallava rule by incorporating the Paruvi and the Kaivara branches into the main line. His son and successor was Avinita (C.466-495 A. D.) who consolidated the Ganga position by marrying the daughter of the Raja of Punnata. He remained friendly with the Pallavas, but was reputed to be very stern in his dealings with the enemies.
DURVINITA (C.495-535 A. D.)Avinita's son and successor, Durvinita, was one of the most remarkable rulers of the Ganga family. His succession was a disputed one, as he had to overcome the challenge of his younger step-brother who seemed to have secured the assistance of the Pallavas and the Kadambas. The Nallala grant refers to this war of succession; so does the Kadagattur grant which gives a hint that his younger brother was supported by the Pallava King and that the " Goddess of sovereignty came to the rescue of Durvinita because of his excellent display of valour and determination".
The Pallava interference in the Ganga affairs resulted in a shift in the dynastic relations which hitherto had been cordial. Durvinita could not remain friendly with the Pallavas who had created problems for him by supporting his step-brother. The Ganga monarch swore vengeance on the Pallavas who were routed in the battle of Anderi in his fifth regal year. The Pallavas, however, continued their hostilities and it is likely that they secured the assistance of the Kadambas in their attempt to tame Durvinita. In the protracted war that ensued, several pitched encounters were fought, and the Gummareddipura record informs us that Durvinita overcame his enemies at Alattur, Porulare and Pernagra. It is possible that these victories enabled him to extend his power over Kongudesa and Tondaimandalam.
Durvinita was able to cement his friendship with the newly emerging Chalukya power. He gave his daughter to Chalukya Vijayaditya; and when his son-in-law became a victim of the Pallava aggression, Durvinita championed the Chalukyas and installed his grandson Jayasimha on the Badami throne. The timely help of the Ganga monarch did much to save the Chalukyas, and on this sure foundation was built a tradition of a durable friendship between the two ruling families.
The Gummareddipura and the Uttanur plates describe Durvinita as the Lord of Punnata. In fact, his mother was Jyeshtadevi, the daughter of Skandavarma of Punnata. It is possible that there were no male heirs to the Punnata throne and naturally the sovereignty of that Kingdom devolved upon Durvinita.
The religious outlook of Durvinita was marked by tolerance. Though he was a worshipper of Vishnu and a performer of Vedic sacrifices like Hiranyagarbha, he was a pupil of the Jaina preceptor Pujyapada. His court was adorned by many Jaina scholars. His religious catholicity is reflected in the generous patronage he extended to all religious sects.
Himself an eminent scholar, Durvinita evinced keen interest in promoting literary cultivation. The renowned Sanskrit poet Bharavi is said to have visited the Ganga court during this period. Durvinita is supposed to have written a commentary on the fifteenth canto of Bharavi's Kiratarjuniya. He also translated into Sanskrit the Vaddakatha or Brihatkatha of Gunadya, which was originally written in the Paisachi language (translated by his vassal Konguvelir to Tamil). He is also credited with the authorship of 'Sabdavatara', a work on grammar. His Nallala grant hails him as an expert in the composition of various forms of poetry, stories and dramas. In fact, Nripatunga's Kavirajamarga hails him as one of the early writers in Kannada.
The many-sided accomplishments of Durvinita are recorded on the Nallala grant. He is compared to Kautilya in expounding the science of polity; to Narada, Tumburu or Bharatadeva in his knowledge of music and dance; to Charaka and Dhanvantri in the knowledge of medicine or to Parasurama in the use of arms. He is referred to as endowed with three constituents of royal power, namely, Prabhusakti (imperial power), Mantrasakti (the power of discretion) and Utsahasakti (the power of active will). His political achievements, military victories, diplomatic skill and many sterling qualities of head and heart prove that his claims were justified. Durvinita was indeed a great ruler of the Ganga family.
Some Gangakula Vellalas also migrated to Eezham see [[Vellalar (Sri Lankan)]]

The Gangas also were great patrons of Tamil.

Western Ganga administration and Hoysala invasion :

The Gavundas who appear most often in inscriptions were the backbone of medieval polity of the southern Karnataka and western Tamilnadu region. As landlords and local elite, the state utilized their services to collect taxes, maintain records of landownership, bear witness to grants and transactions and even raise militia when required. Owing strong personal allegiance to the king, they were vested with certain rights over villages. It appears the gavundas operated as corporations in the Kaveri valley but as individuals in the northern and eastern domains of the Gangas. They had rights to make grants that may have been occasionally exempt of local taxes. There were two types of Gavundas; the Ur-Gavundas who were lower in status and wielded control at the village level and the Nadu-gavunda who oversaw the Nadu and were directly appointed by the king.

During suceeding Hoysala empire, the system got a little modified. There were two types of landlords (Gavundas); Gavunda of people (praja Gavunda) was lower in status than the wealthy lord of gavundas (prabhu gavunda). Thus we can trace the presence of two distinct varieties of Gounders within the same marrige group. The Prabhu Gavundas of the Hoysala period are usually called the Ejamanans (Sans: Yajamana or the one who supports Yajnyas). The praja gavundans are the normal agriculturist landlords. The coming of the Hoysalas meant the loss of central power for the Gounders permanently.

Religion and communal structure of the Gounders:

The Gounders are followers of the traditional form of Saiva Siddhanta Hinduism. In earlier times a sizeable population followed seems to have followed Jainism
(temples are found even today at Vijayamangalam, Jinapuram, Vellode, Perundurai, Palani, Aivarmalai and Poondurai )and later reconverted by the Siddhar traditions (most of the Siddhars lived in Kongunadu). The Gounders follow the system of Gotram, popularly called Kootam in which persons from the same Kootam do not marry one another as they are considered to have descended from the same ancestor. Each Kootam has its own Kulaguru (or popularly saamiar- a brahmin- for example, the kulaguru of melkarai poonthurai nadu kootams is Pasur Akilanda Dikshitar), who is traditionally respected. (This fact is cleverly skipped by Dravidian historians). Every Kootam also has one or more Kuladeivams or a Clan Deities. Some of the Kootams are:

Adhitreya Kumban
Andhuvan (Kuladeivam - Keeranur SelvaNayaki Amman, near by Kangeyam)-Sangam period name.
Bharatan (descendants of Bharata)
Dananjayan (descendants of Arjuna)
Eenjan (Kuladeiva - situated at Eengur - A place located near Erode)
Kaadai (Kaadava kings-kuladeivam at Keechakanoor (Keeranur) -the Kichakan of Mahabharatam)- largest of kootams with branches Nasiyanur kadai, Perunthurai kadai, Attur kadai,Pavithiram kaadai)
Kannan (descendants of Kannuva rishi-probably the original Ganga dynasty) - 2nd largest kootam. (This kootam's kuladeivam is Kulavilakkayi or Kulavilakku Amman - also known as Nallayi - It is located in Kaalamangalam in Erode,traditionally vegetarian)
Muzhlukkadhan (same as porulthantha)
Paandian (Pandya dynasty)
Panangadai (Elumathur Kadais and Maruthurai Kadais-distinct from Kadais, note:Salem and Namakkal dist Kadais don't marry into this kootam,traditionally vegetarian)
Payiran (Mandradiyar's kootam, traditionally vegetarian)
Poochadhai (Bhoothan+thanthai-descendants of Jain God Arhadeva (ref:Tamil grammar books) Poodhiyan
Porulthantha or Perizhanthan(same as mulukadhan)
Sathandhai (Saathan+thanthai-descendants of Jain tirthankara Rishaba deva(ref:Tamil grammar)
Sathuvaraayan (meaning:good rulers)
Sanagan (Janakar's descendants)
Sooriyan (Suriyavamsam)
Viradhan (descendants of Viratan of Mahabharata)
This list is not exhaustive.

Royal houses and kootams (gothras):

Kaalingarayar-Kings of Kalinga Ganga dynasty (Eastern Ganga dynasty)
Vaanavarayar-Bana dynasty
Pallavarayar-Pallava dynasty
Palayakottai Mandradiyar-chieftain
Cheran kootam-Chera dynasty
Pandya kootam-Pandya dynasty
Kannan(Kannuvan)-original Ganga rulers
Kadai-Kaadava dynasty
Elumathur kadai - chinna esamans (local landlords)

Language of Gounders:

The language of the Gounders is the popular Coimbatore Bhashai or Kongu Tamil. It must have been a distinct language as it also shows relations with Eela Tamil, Prakrit-Aprabramsa and Kannada. It was earlier called Kangee or Gangee (கங்கி, the language of the Gangas). Mysore, Col. Wilks, records in his "History of Mysore":
"In the southern part of Mysore the Tamil language is at this day named the Gangee from being best known to them as the language of the people of Kankayam". (Wilks, Mysore, p. 4, F, N.2) Later mainstream Tamil assimilated the language yet preserving idiolectical differences and markers.

Examples of variance:

Tamil/Gangee(கங்கி or today:Kongu Tamil)
Appa/Anna(pronounced like last part in Pongiy'''ana'''), aiyya (nasalised anna)
Amma/Ayi,Aya orAyi+yal),Atha
Chitti/Chinnayi(also Chinni),chinnaya,Chinatha
Kollu Thatha/Pattan
Kollu Patti/Patti
Ellu Pattan/Muppattan
Ellu patti/Muppatti
brother-in-law is called Machandar by women

The Modern caste:

The Gounder caste is a progressive caste which has excellent personae in various fields. The Coimbatore region flourishes mainly due to their innovation and hardwork in Agriculture, textiles (Salem, Coimbatore, Erode, Tirupur and Karur), Education (Namakkal, Coimbatore, Salem), Poultry Namakkal), Automobiles (Namakkal, Salem), Bus body building (Karur), Milk (Erode Aavin), Edible Oils (Erode), Turmeric (Erode has the largest market in South India) and Marketing of Cloths (Erode 24 hours market in every week) .Kongunadu has the highest urban proportion and contributes 2/3rd of Tamilnadu's income. Gounders always formed part of all ministeries with strategic portfolios earlier and now they have been relegatged to third rate minstries and now are at a distance from "real" political power! When Rajaji was the Cm, he is said to have told people that he has three Gounder ministers just because Gounders are honest and committed. The population of Gounders is rapidly falling due to birth control and emigration of youth is seen as a possible source by which the caste is bound to disappear in the near future.

Sekkizhar - minister of Kulottunga who compiled 'Periyapuranam', a treatise on Saivite saints.(There is a graphic description of his life and how he came to write this magnum opus is narrated in a 14th cent Tamil work Thiruttoṇḍar-purāṇa-varalāru. Sekkiḻār who belongs to an agriculturist family of Veḷḷaḷar, rose to be the Chief-minister to the Choḻa emperor Kulottuṅga II. The work ascribed to Umāpati Śivam of 14th cent gives two significant titles of Sekkiḻār. He is called "Gaṅgā-kula-tilaka" (verse -59) and "Bhāgīrati-kula-Tilaka")

Thiruvennai Nallur Sadayappa Vallal (patron of Kambar) referred as Pannai kulathu Kongar kon in Ramavatharam (Kamba Ramayanam)(ref:''pannai vennai sadaya'' kambaramayanam verse 636 line 7)

P. Subbarayan - Premier of Madras Presidency (1926 - 1930), served in the cabinet of Jawaharlal Nehru.

C. Subramaniam(1910 - 2000) - Former Union Minister, Deputy chairperson of the planning commission, Bharat Ratna Awardee(1998) and father of the Indian Green Revolution.
Mohan Kumaramangalam- Eminent lawyer, former Union Minister in Indira Gandhi’s cabinet and Communist leader.
Rangarajan Kumaramangalam - Eminent lawyer, former Union Minister and Congress/BJP leader.

T.M.Kaliyannan Gounder - Former MP (member of Constituent Assembly), Ex MLA,Ex MLC, Former Vice President of TNCC.

N.K.K.Periasamy - Former Provincial Minister for Pollution Control and Textiles, currently serving as State secretary for DMK Farmers union.

Kovai Chezian - Prominent politician.

C. P. RadhaKrishnan - Former MP(Coimbatore), Tamilnadu BJP leader.
Thambidurai -Former MP & Deputy Speaker of Loksabha

K N Palanisamy Gounder - (KNP),Service oriented Leader of Congress Party,Ex MLA, Chairman of Tirupur

M. Kannappan - A staunch supporter of Vaiko and treasurer of MDMK.

Subbulakshmi Jagadeesan - Minister of State in the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.

C Ponnaian - Minister in the MGR and successive ADMK governments

Pongalur N.Palanisamy - Minister for Rural Industries (Tamilnadu).

K. Subbarayan - CPI 's state leader and great orator.

S. Muthusamy - Former Minister of Tamilnadu, under Dr M G Ramachandran's leadership.

K. A. Sengottaiyan - Former Minister of Tamilnadu, under J.Jayalalitha's leadership.

NKKP. Raaja - Minister of Handlooms, Erode Constituency MLA.

Muthur Saminathan - Won three times in legislative assembly elections in Tamilnadu and became state highway minister.

C. K. Kuppusamy - Member of Parliament from Coimbatore Constituency for three terms and Mass leader

Durai Ramasamy - Former Minister, represented Vellakovil legislative constituency for five consecutive times.

Mullai Vendhan , (Morapur) Former Minister in the state Cabinet

Dato Subramaniam -Former MIC Deputy President(Malaysia)

K. S. Ramasamy Gounder - of Koogalur - Ex Central Minister

M.Cinnusamy Gounder ,(Karur) - Ex.Industrial Minister, Ex.M.P ,Ex.MLA.(AIADMK)

K.Vadivel Gounder,(Karur) -Ex.MLA (AIADMK)

Mr.V.Senthil Balaij Karur MLA.,(AIADMK)

Vasuki Murugesan ,(Karur) -Ex.MLA (DMK)

R. Devarajan - Leader - Kongu Nadu Makkal Katchi.

Su.Duraisamy - Labour leader

M.SelviMurugesan - Ex MLA (AIADMK) of Tamil nadu ( 2001-2006).

P.C.Ramasamy - Former Minister for Hindu religious rights and Charitable endowments, Tamilnadu

Mr.C.Sivasamy - Ex.MLA - Tirupur

S.K.Kaarventhan,BL - Congress MP-Bar Council Member,Dharapuram

E.M.Natarajan - M.A.,BL - Ex MLA (DMK) - Anthiyur, Tamilnadu (1968-78)


Kongu Velir who translated the Brhatkatha in Sanskrit into Tamil Perungathai (one of the aiynkurun kappiyams or the five smaller epics)(14th cent Vijayamangalam)

Late Palanisamy Gounder, Former Principal of Madras Law college, Former Director of Legal Studies, and Former TNPSC Board member.

Pulavar Kuzhanthai -Dravidian literarian who wrote the Ravana Kaviyam.

Dr.V. C. Kulandaiswam - Academician and renowned author. Formerly Vice Chancellor of Madurai University, Anna University, IGNOU and Tamil Virtual University. Padma Shri(1992), Padma Bhushan (2002).

P. A. Venkatachalam - Founding Professor, Department of Computer Science/School of Computer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Guindy, Anna University.

R. M. Vasagam - Project Director for APPLE, India's first experimental Geostationary Communication Satellite Project during 1977-83. Vice- Chancellor of Dr. M.G.R. Deemed University, formerly Vice- Chancellor of Anna University. Padma Shri (1982)

C. Subramaniam - Vice-Chancellor of the Tamil University, Thanjavur.

Sirpi Balasubramaniam- Winner of two Sahithya Academy awards, Former Professor and Head of Tamil Department, Bharathiar University.

P. K. Ponnusamy- Former Vice-chancellor, Madras University and Madurai Kamaraj University.

C. Ramasamy- Vice-Chancellor, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore.

Silamboli S. Chellappan - Tamil Scholar. He was Registrar, Tamil University, Thanjavur,
Director, Directorate of Tamil Development, and Director, International Institute for Tamil Studies. Awarded Kalaimamani Award and Pavendhar Bharathidasan Award.

K.R. Palaniswamy - Former president of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology. Awarded the Padma Shri for 2006. He was awarded the FRCP Glasgow. He was instrumental in founding the department of Gastroenterology at Stanley Medical College, Chennai.

Pulavar S. Rasu- Kongu Research Centre founder

K R V 'Raja' Subramanian - co-founded AnswerPal(Ascendum Systems). Served as Professor of Computer Science and Dean of Distance Learning at BITS, Pilani.

K.S.Ranga Samy.Founder and Chair man of K.S.R Educational institution,Tiruchengode

Dr.K.S.Janakarathnam - Former President, Gobi Arts & Science College, Gobichettipalayam during 1973-89


General Paramasiva Prabhakar Kumaramangalam (1913-2000) - 7th Chief of Army Staff (June 7 1966 - June 7 1969), Distinguished Service Order (DSO) as a Major for action in Libya, erstwhile hero of the theme behind the 'Great Escape', when he escaped from a Nazi concentration camp. Padma Vibhushan - 1970

D.R. Karthikeyan IPS - Former Bangalore City Commissioner of Police, Former Director - Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI).

Justice P S Kailasam - former judge of the Supreme Court and former Chief Justice of the Madras High Court

E.C. Sakthi Chandrasekharan - B.E.M.S.E. (Princeton)- former Chief engineer of National Highways, Tamil Nadu.

S. G. Sengodayan - first nonbrahmin ICS

Nalla Govindasway - former Superindent of Police, Tamil Nadu who received President's medal and Best Citizen award for his services.

Dr. P. Raja Goundan- General Manager ICF

M.Thirumalaisamy, I.A.S - former TNPSC member; native of Dharapuram.

K.Sellamuthu, I.A.S - former Coimbatore Collector, presently Joint Secretary to the
government; native of Dharmapuri district.

K.Natarajan, I.P.S - DGP Vigilance; native of Dharapuram.


Dheeran Chinamalai Gounder - Freedom Fighter.

Vellaikinar Chinnappa Vellingiri Gounder - farmer - turned - nation builder

Appachi Gounder - coordinated the nationalist operation between the Marathas under

Thoondhaji Bagh, the southern leaders like Maruthu brothers and Kattabomman.

Ennamangalam K. Ramasami Gounder - Freedom Fighter from age of 15.


Sathyaraj - Prominent Kollywood actor

Sivakumar - Prominent Kollywood actor

Surya(actor) - Sivakumar's son and prominent Kollywood actor

Sibiraj - sathyaraj's son and upcoming Kollywood actor

Karthik Sivakumar - Sivakumar's second son and upcoming Kollywood actor

Vijayakrishnaraj - Movie Director, Movie and TV Actor.

Sathyan - Movie Comedy Actor



Muttiah Muralitharan - Famous Cricketer.

S Marisamy - Spiker from Sathyamangalam,represented India in Asian Volleyball championships.

T.Muthu Prabhakaran - Leading 350cc Bike champion, from Tirupur.

R.Mohanachellam - Striker from Saravanampatti, represented India in Beijing Olympics 2008.


Dr. Veerappan Subramanian - Ph.D., Chairman and CEO of Novel Laboratories, Inc. Former CEO of Kali Labs, USA.

A. Sakthivel - President Tirupur Exporters Association(TEA) and Chairman AEPC

Nachimuthu Gounder - Along with Robert Stanes, P.S.G. Naidu and G.D.Naidu was responsible for the industrial revolution in Coimbatore.

B.K. Krishnaraj Vanavarayar- Chairman, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Coimbatore. Industrialist.

Pollachi N. Mahalingam - Chairman, Sakthi Group of Companies. Awarded the Padma Bhushan for 2006.

Chinnu Senthilkumar - Director, SanDisk Corporation, India Operations. Received "Young Scientist" award from President of India in 1991. Holds several Patents in Semiconductor Chip design. Well known figure in Semiconductor Industry.

R. Veeramani - Chairman of Gem Granites Group.

S. V. Balasubramaniam - Well known as S.V.B, Bannariamman groups, Bannari Amman Engineering College

P.G. Periasamy - Founder and CEO PGP Groups, CMD of Dharani Sugars,Hotel Le Royal Meridian.

S. K. Maeilanandan - S.K.M. Cattle feeds.

K.Ramasamy - Chairman of ROOTS Industries Ltd., Automobile Masters degree holder from Lincoln Tech Institute, USA.

P.Duraisamy - Owner of Sakthi Masala, Erode.

Shanthi Gears, Coimbatore.

K. Ettikannan - CTB Enterprises

K. K. Velusamy - Deccan Pumps.

Miller Ramasamy - A pioneer, who started the first hosiery industries in Tirupur

K.P. Natarajan - Owner and founder of K.P.N travels.

Gopal Shivaram - Classic Polo Groups

P.S.Velusamy Gounder CMD of Sri Shanmugavel Mills Group , Dindigul

S.Susindran - Chief Founder of Sabare International Ltd. Karur

Eastman Palanisamy - Pioneer of Knitwear Processing Industry in India


M.P. Periasamy Thooran- Poet, Chief Editor, Tamil Encyclopaedia (1948-1978), Padma Bhushan (1968).

R. Shanmugasundaram - Tamil writer of the Manikkodi group. His novels revolve around the farming community.

Soundara Kailasam - Activist and poet

Sakthikanal - Writer

Deiva Sigamani Gounder - Poet

L. S. Kandasamy - Started the Thannambikkai magazine and has written several books on self improvement.


Sachidananda Swami - Founder of Integral yoga and Yogaville. U Thant Peace Award. Spiritual guru for Tamil actor Rajnikanth.

Swami Chidbhavananda - C.S's maternal uncle

Dhavathiru Sundara Swamigal - Perur Mutt.

Santhalinga Ramasamy Adigalaar - Perur Math.

Jagaduru Sri Sri Sri Balagangadharanatha Mahaswamiji - Sri Adichunchanagiri Mahasamsthana Math.

Maruthachala Adigalar - First man to fight for Tamil Archanas in Tamilnadu Temples.


Thiruvennai Nallur Sadayappa Vallal(திருவெண்ணை நல்லூர் சடயப்ப வள்ளல்) - a Pannai kula cheiftain. Kamban wrote his epic Kamba Ramayanam with his patronage. As a mark of respect for his patron, Kamban refers his name once in every 1000 verses.

Sollerulavan Sellamuthu- The great orator and founder of Farmers Associations.
Diwan Bahadur Agathur Muthuramaswami Kalingaroyar

Sekkizhar - minister of Kulottunga who compiled 'Periyapuranam', a treatise on Saivite saints.(There is a graphic description of his life and how he came to write this magnum opus is narrated in a 14th cent Tamil work Thiruttoṇḍar-purāṇa-varalāru. Sekkiḻār who belongs to an agriculturist family of Veḷḷaḷar, rose to be the Chief-minister to the Choḻa emperor Kulottuṅga II. The work ascribed to Umāpati Śivam of 14th cent gives two significant titles of Sekkiḻār. He is called "Gaṅgā-kula-tilaka" (verse -59) and "Bhāgīrati-kula-Tilaka")
Vakkapakai mannan Varapathiyatkondan (patron of Villiputhoorar)(ref: kongar kula vatrapathiyatkondan - Villibharatham- Sirappurpayiram verse 18 line 2 and various other references)
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There are certain small sub groups who also follow the same customs and are also called by the same name among the Gounders which are getting amalgamated nowadays into the mainstream, some of the differences are (mentioned number two group is the mainstream),
Nattu Gounders-Oor Gounders = Gounders who were rulers of Nadus see [[Western Ganga administration]] where Gounder population is thin and normal oor Gounders.
Narambukatti Gounders (Vadakarai vellalars) -Senthalai Gounders = of north and south of river Bhavani.
Padathalai Gounders - Senthalai Gounders = the people who joined and abstained Tippu sultan's army respectively) (found mostly in the Vijayamangalam belt).
Irumudi Gounders - Vellala Gounders = Gounders who fell under two rulers and proper Kongu respectively.

Castes like the Padayachi "Gounders" and Kurumba 'Gounders" have assumed the title for the sake of respect though they are not referred as Gounders. There is enough caution among the Gounders regarding this.

Peculiar customs:

Various peculiar customs in the caste both known and unknown are observed. These have modified in the last two generations and some may even feel new to these. There are various reasons for these peculiarities. Some are,

1.Ancient Tamil vestiges (language, feeding the pulavars with milk and fruit mash, worship of demi gods,moi virunthu, etc..,).
2.Samana (Jaina) vestiges (eating before dark, white saree (vella seelai) for widows, preference for white dress, cooking meat outside the house, etc..,).
3.Kshatiriya vestiges (Gotra system, Annamar vazhipadu (hunter-warrior conflict), Kannimar vazhipadu (sapta kanyas), udankattaiyeral (sati), kuladeivam,kulaguru, benovalence,marriage customs,holding the marriage ceremony in the bride's house, giving handicapped children to Modavandis thereby eliminating weak genes, etc..,).

Marriage customs:

Gounders marry outside their Kootam(Gotram) and are renown for their elaborate threeday-marriage extravagenzas. Only some kootams give and take very high dowries, whereas today that is fading away. Their marriage rituals follow the Kshatriya pattern (where the bridegroom goes to the bride's house) and therefore necessarily involve service castes participation.
Another known fact about gounders is that they are highly conservative and do not marry anyone out of their caste and if done so they exclude that person from their families. Gounders are people who value their caste and society more than family ties. The practice of cross cousin marriages like the other south and central Indian people is also followed though lesser in these days.

Kongu Vellalar Marriage:
*Arumaikaarar *Arumaikaari *Anthanar *Naavidhan (Barber) *Vannaan (Washer man) *Potter (Vetkovar) *Paraiyars (Men from paraiya caste) *Kammaalar *Pandaaram *Maadhaari (shoemaker) *Porutham paarthal (Examination of the agreement of horoscopes) *Sagunam paarthal (Being guided by omens) *Mutual visit to the houses of bride and bridegroom *Betrothal (Nichayadhaartham or nichaya thaamboolam) *Invitation for marriage *Kongu Vellalar Marriage
*Kongu Vellalar Marriage The Vellalar were of great assistance to the king by being in various positions and ranks in the army. They also got the title 'Kamindan' from the king for their meritorious service and loyalty. Later the title got modified as ‘Gounden'. To streamline the living together of the boy and the girl, certain regulations and procedures were created. The procedures and habits as per certain regulations later became ‘rites'. The performance of all the rites collectively in a sequence is called marriage.
*Kongu Vellala Gounders-Ceremonial Rites in Marriages The various rites being performed nowadays in the marriage ceremony of Kongu Vellalar community are unique in nature. Each and every rite is performed for some specific reason. The original rites performed centuries ago in Kongu Vellalar marriage ceremony which resembled ‘Sanagam’ age rites have undergone minor changes and modifications from technology and consequent changes in customs, habits and facilities. Some rites have ceased to exist because of their having become obsolete.
The rites which are being performed nowadays in Kongu Vellalar marriage ceremony reflect the superior character, rich culture and high tradition of Kongu Vellalar community.
*Who perform rites? All the ceremonial rites relating to Kongu Vellalar marriage are performed by ‘arumaikaarar’ ,arumaikaari, naavidhan (barbar), washer man (vannaan) and such others who are closely associated with the occupation of Kongu Vellala Gounders.
*Arumaikaarar: An ‘arumaikaarar’, who is a respected elderly member of the community, is the prime person for performing the marriage rites of Kongu Vellalar. The arumaikaarar is also used to be called ‘arumaiperiyavar’, 'seerkaarar’ and ‘pudavaikaarar’. The aruamikaarar should have wife and child/children.
On the specified day, the three arumaikaarars, after planting the ‘Muhurthakaal’, will go to an anthill of white ants, offer prayer, gather sacred earth in three baskets and bring the same to the wedding place
*Arumaikaari: A women gets the name arumaikaari after the performance of certain rites on her by an arumaikaarar at the time when her son or daughter has attained age for marriage. The rite relating to this is called ‘Ezhudhingam’, as mentioned by Thiru R. Venketeswaran in his research paper titled ‘Vennandhur Vattaara Kongu Vellalar Vaazhviyal’. The arumaikaari (the women who has undergone the process of ezhudhingam) along with the arumaikaarar will perform all the rites relating to women.
The rites being performed on men or women who wish to become arumaikaarar or arumaikaari respectively clearly point out that only those who are respected elders, who are well experienced and who are having spouse and child/children, are qualified to perform the rites of a marriage ceremony.
*Anthanan: The Anthanan or te Brahmin was the first to be consulted in the initiation of the ceremony according to the '''Mangala Vazhthu'''. Then during the Mangiliyam or the kodi(Thali) time, the Brahmin recited the appropriate slokams from the vedic texts.The '''Kulaguru''' (saamiyar) blesses the couple.
*Naavidhan (Barber): Next to arumaikaarar, the naavidhan (barbar) plays an important role in conducting the rites of the marriage ceremony of Kongu Vellalar. The naavidhan is called ‘Kudimagan’. The Kudimagan’s important works in the conduct of the marriage are to invite all relatives for the marriage, to perform each and every rite of the marriage ceremony along with the arumaikaarar, to recite the ‘mangala vaazhthu’ song and to announce and call the relatives concerned before performing each rite.
*Vannaan (Washer man):The marriage pandhal (a temporary shed with a roof made of plaited coconut leaves) will be decorated with colorful clothes on all sides including the top by the washer man. Cloths will be laid down on the path to enable the newly wedded couple to walk on the same when the couple comes out from the same when the couple comes the decorated marriage platform.
*Potter (Vetkovar): The vetkovar is one who makes earthen pots. The Sangam works praise the potter as a vessel-making king. The potter will make and supply earthen pots required for performing the marriage rites. There was an agreement between Kongu Vellalar and potters to the effect that the potters will receive paddy and money from the Kongu Vellalar in return for the post supplied, as mentioned in ‘Madurai Pattayam’ (grant inscribed on copper plate).
*Paraiyars (Men from paraiya caste): The paraiyars will beat the Kettle –like drums and make loud musical noise during the marriage of kongu Vellalar.
*Kammaalar: The ' Kammaalar` are artisans who work in wood. The kammaalar will make and supply all the agricultural instruments and tools required by the Kongu Vellalar. They will also make and supply things such as wooden plate, ladle, salt box, special box with five compartments used to keep spices for cooking, which are required for performing the rite `madaikalam vaithal` in the marriage ceremony.
*Pandaaram: The pandaarams used to perform poojai for village gods. The pandaarams are also very good in cooking and they undertake the work of cooking also in Kongu Vellalar marriages.
*Maadhaari (shoemaker): The maadhaari or sakkili people are also involved in Kongu Vellalar marriages. These people make new chappals for bridegroom as well as bride and give them for a consideration. Wearing of new chapples made and supplied by the maadhaari is also a rite in Konge Vellalar marriage ceremony.
*Porutham paarthal (Examination of the agreement of horoscopes) Tholkaappiyar says that there are ten aspects of agreement (porutham) to be looked in to between the boy and girl. They are birth, quality of family, strength, age personality, attachment, humility, compassion, knowledge and wealth.
*Sagunam paarthal (Being guided by omens) Apart from seeing the horoscope, there was also the practice of taking guidance from omens (sagunam paarthal) in temples of respective ‘kuladheivams’. Keeping flowers in front of god and watching the movement of the flower, listening to the voice and sound of lizard are some of omens, which are looked at before taking a decision on matrimonial matters. Only if the omen is good and positive, the green signal for the marriage will be given.
Mullai paattu’, a Sangam Tamil poem, says that aged women will worship the God with paddy and flowers, praying for permission to take the decision on marriage alliance and hoping that good things will happen in future by this deed.
*Mutual visit to the houses of bride and bridegroom After coming to a decision that the proposal for marriage is satisfactory and can be gone through, the bridegroom’s family members and close relatives will visit the house of the bride and see for themselves the state of affairs, the house, the land, quality of living, status and other such things and in the same manner, the bride’s family members and close relatives will visit the bridegroom’s house. Only after knowing and evaluating all these aspects and getting themselves satisfied with all relevant matters, will consent be given to the next stage called betrothal (nichayadhaartham).
*Betrothal (Nichayadhaartham or nichaya thaamboolam) After taking a decision that the marriage can be conducted, an auspicious day will be chosen and on that day, the bridegroom’s family along with relatives and friends will go to the bride’s house. The bride’s parents as well as bridegroom’s parents are called ‘Sambandhi’. A plate containing fruits, betel and areca nut will be kept on a tripod. Persons from bride’s side and the bridegroom’s side will sit opposite to each other, with the tripod kept in between them and start holding discussions. The bridegroom’s side will tell the bride’s side that they have come to request their consent for the marriage alliance and the bride’s side will reciprocate by giving their consent with pleasure. Then the two sides will exchange plates containing coconut and fruits. The girl will be called and given a plate containing new dresses and presents. After receiving the same, the bride will enter the dressing room and come out after wearing the new dress given by the bridegroom’s side. The bride will be asked to keep in her lap betel, areca nut, turmeric, lemon, etc. and pay regards and respect to the elders present on that occasion to grace the betrothal function. By mutual consent, the date and time and the venue of the marriage are fixed. Thereafter, the bride’s family hosts a feast called ‘parupanchotru virundhu’ (feast including rice and dhal) to mark the end of the betrothal event. In this context, it is to be pointed out that the bridegroom’s side will not take food in bride’s house unless and until the marriage is fixed and confirmed. This has been mentioned by Pulavar T.P.Chinnasami in his book ‘Thirumana Sadangugalil Panpaadu’.
*Invitation for marriage Nowadays marriage invitation cards are printed and mostly sent by post. Only close relatives and close friends are invited personally by handing over invitation cards. In those days, the kudimagan used to go to each and every house in person for extending the invitation for marriage. The kudimagan will also specify the number of invitees in each house for the marriage. Even if person from the bride’s family or bridegroom’s family invited personally, the invitees will not attend the marriage unless the kudimagan comes in person and extends the invitation. Such was the importance attached to the extends the invitation. Such was the importance attached to the kudimagan’s invitation in those days in Kongu Vellalar marriages.
*Rites before marriage As soon as the marriage is fixed, the relatives will voluntarily come forward to involve themselves in all the work relating to the marriage in bride’s house and bridegroom’s house. The relatives consider it an honour to go to the marriage house and do the works relating to the marriage. Work such as steaming paddy, cutting firewood, serving food to guests, erection of pandhal for the marriage is carried out only by relatives. All these actions and deeds show that in Kongu Vellalar community, the relatives are given due respect and that they render help voluntarily, bound by strong love and affection. The Kongu Vellalar marriage is an ancient one. It has unique qualities. The various rites in Kongu Vellalar marriages are conducted by an elderly person of the Kongu Vellalar community itself, called ‘Arumaikaarar’. Raising of sacrificial fire and chanting of vedic hymns do not find a place in the marriage ceremony of Kongu Vellalar. The marriage rites reveal the fine qualities and rich traditions of Kongu Vellalar community. Wide publicity is given for the celebration of temporary structure (pandhal), cutting firewood and the loud beating of musical instruments. The events and rites such as ‘pariyam’ idudhal, betrothal, kulam kodhudhal and muhurthakaal naattudhal serve as evidence for the marriage. The rite “Aarathi eduthal” (a plate containing water mixed with turmaric and lime waved before newly married couple), “Senjoru aindhadai suttrudhal” (waving rice balls before newly married couple), and ‘Arugumanam seidhal’ are performed with a view to eliminating the blight caused due to evil eyes. Fasting and ‘Kaappu Kattudhal’ are rites which mark the determination of the bride and the bridegroom to enter into a new life. Tying of thaali by the bridegroom around the neck of the bride and exchanging of garlands in the presence of all gathered for the marriage ceremony mark the completion of the wedding. The blessings for the couple through mangala vaazhthu song are also considered to be the blessings of the people present for the marriage ceremony. ‘Tharrai varthal’ and ‘Kaithalam pattrudhal’ are rites which point out the rights and responsibilities of the bride and the bridegroom. Events such as steaming of paddy (nel vega vaithal), Cutting firewood and erection of pandhal (temporary structure) indicate the closeness among relatives. The rite ‘thaayudan unnal’ (‘thaayudan unnal’ is a very good quality) adds glory to the women community. The rite ‘inai cheer’ is a rite which shows the admirable quality of protecting the rights of women. Coming closer of relatives (bride’s family and bridegroom’s family) is made known and exhibited by rites such as ‘Kai Korvai’, ’seer koodai’ procession and ‘pudhy kalandhunnal’. The rite ‘paadha poosai seithal ‘signifies the respect shown by the bride and the bridegroom for their parents. The rite ‘naattukal valhipaadu shows that any important event or activity is commenced only after paying regards and respect for community leaders and obtaining their blessings. When other communities have opened their gateway for Aryan and priestly rites, Kongu Vellalar community has not accepted the above rites for purpose of following. The main purpose of today’s marriage movement is that all the marriage rites should be performed only in Tamil. This is being followed fully in Kongu Vellalar marriages. In each and every marriage, it is natural that certain rites take place. Marriage with out rites means marriage without irrational and foolish rites. Most of the rites of Kongu Vellalar marriages resembles those in marriages of the Sangam age.
Rich culture, high tradition, customs and habits of Kongu Vellalar, who are the indigenous clan of Tamil Nadu, are revealed in the various marriage rites. The Kongu Vellalar is comparable to the best in the world. The Kongu Vellalar, who were the chief architects of agriculture, can feel very proud of their unique and ancient culture, known extraordinary hard work, hospitality, helping nature, harmonious living with nature as well as othercommunities, courage, respecting women, high standards of living, prosperity and support to deserving.
The Kongu Vellalar marriage can be said to resemble the ‘prajaapathyam’ type marriage. In Kongu Vellalar marriage, the bridegroom’s family goes to the bride’s house, propose the marriage and request the consent of the bride’s family for the alliance. After obtaining consent from the bride’s family, the marriage takes place.
*Kongu Vellalar Marriage Rites and Marriage Venue In the Past, kongu Vellalar marriages took place in bride’s house. In those days, it was the practice that only very close relatives were invited for the marriages. However, nowadays relatives, friends, neighbors and other known persons are being invited in large numbers for the marriages. For want of sufficient space and other needed facilities, the marriages are not held in the houses, but held in marriage halls which have come up in large numbers to suit the budget and requirements of all categories of people.
Marriage Season Dr Sasivalli, in her book ‘Thamizhar Thirumanam’ has stated as follows: Ancient Tamils considered spring (April-May) Season, day with moon and rogini and early morning time suitable for conducting the marriages. With passage of time, changes and modifications took place in season, day and time.
Kongu Vellalar do not conduct marriages in the months of Aadi and maargazhi. Generally, they do not choose even Chithirai for conducting the marriage. Marriages are held mostly in the months of Vaikaasi, Aani and Asvani taking into consideration the fact that the season will be good during these months and also jasmine flower of lovable fragrance which is required in large quantities for the marriage, will be available in plenty during this season. The marriages of Kongu Vellalar are celebrated for three consecutive days The First day event The first day event is called ‘Naal virundhu’. On this day, close relatives of the bride and bridegroom will host feast for the bride’s family and bridegroom’s family respectively. The Second day event On the second day, marriage arrangements will be done by brining together all relatives. Events such as erection of pandhal (temporary shed), cutting of ‘Muhurtha Kaal’, hairdressing of bridegroom by kudimagan, informing the marriage event to village community by drum beating, hosting of feast for the relatives in the bride’s family as well as bridegroom’s family, bridegroom leaving for the bride’s house will take place on the second day. The marriage event will take place in bride’s house. The Third day event The mukurtham will take place on third day. The bride and the bridegroom will be seated on the marriage platform on completion of appropriate rites. The thaali (mangala naan) will be tied by the bridegroom around the bride’s neck and mangala vaazhthu song will be recited.
The marriage events will come to a close with the serving of grand feast to all relatives, friends and neighbors. The marriage events will be performed by a respected elderly person of the community itself called arumaikaarar. This section explains the various events of the marriage ceremony. All the rites are performed only in the Tamil language.
*Kongu Vellalar Marriages in Tamil Literatures Kongu Vellalar had held high positions such as chieftains and army generals. Hence rites relating to government administration and war find their places in Kongu Vellalar marriages The events such as bridegroom riding a horse in olden days, giving gifts and presents including weapons are examples of the above. The main occupation of Kongu Vellalar was agriculture and they excelled in it by their hard work and dedicated efforts. Hence agriculture related rites such as boiling paddy and seer koodai formed part of the marriage rites of Kongu Vellalar.
*‘Mangala vaazhthu’ song The mangala vaazhthu song, which is, recited only in kongu Vellalar marriages. This song explains in detail and in sequence all the events related to a marriage from the beginning to the end. The song has been written in such a way that it describes the marriage events in a grand manner as if it is taking place in a king’s family. The Status, life, style, culture, and nature of society and relationship of Kongu Vellalar are very well brought out by the above song. The mangala Vaazhthu song is qualified to be spoken literature.

The art of marriage Kongu Vellalar strives their best to lead a successful and prosperous domestic life after marriage.

Politics in Kongunadu today:

Kongunadu has nearly 70 assembly constituencies out of the total 234. This region has been economically strong but politically vwry weak because disunity among the majority Gounders.Today Gounders who are estimated to be the single largest caste in Tamilnadu of about 70-80 lakhs are represented only in 23/65 assembly constituencies. This is radically opposite to the 30/30 and 4 important ministers in the Rajaji berth. (The only caste given 4 ministers by the great Rajaji , not even Brahmins as he used to say Gounders are very honest). There are only two ministers now with dummy portfolios. Thevars have 30/38 MLAs and 4 ministers with strategic portfolios, Vanniars have 50/60 MLAs with 3 strategic ministeries in their respective areas. Central MP position is even bad 5/11 constituencies and no central ministers from the community while Vanniars and Thevars have 3 strategic ministers each. Gounders are thus all set to lose their status within the next 5 years.


Kongumandala satakam

Kongudesa rajakkal

(list of books in seperate catalogue)


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